Nephroselmis olivacea, copyright William Bourland.

Belongs within: Corticata.
Contains: Chlorosarcinaceae, Tetraphytae.

The Chlorophyta is a major group of green algae including both unicellular and multicellular lineages, with most representatives being aquatic.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Cilia of swimming cells in pairs or multiples of two, with stellate structure linking nine pairs of microtubules at basal body transition zone; thylakoids single or stacked; plastid with two membranes without periplastid endoplasmic reticulum; starch inside plastid; glycolate dehydrogenase present; cell wall, when present, of cellulose; cell division without phragmoplast.

<==Chlorophyta [Micromonadophyceae, Nephrophyceae, Prasinophytae]
    |--Pyramimonas [Pyramimonadales] WM14
    |    |--P. parkeae WM14
    |    `--P. propulsa OI05
    `--+--+--+--Micromonas pusilla L-BC03
       |  |  `--Mantoniella L-BC03
       |  |       |--M. antarctica L-BC03
       |  |       `--M. squamata L-BC03
       |  `--Mamiellophyceae AS12
       |       |  i. s.: Bathycoccus AS12
       |       |         Dolichomastix AS12
       |       |         Monomastix opisthostigma WM14
       |       `--Mamiellales OS03
       |            |--Mamiella L-BC03
       |            `--Ostreococcus OS03
       |                 |--O. lucimarinus C-SCL15
       |                 `--O. tauri OS03
       `--+--Pycnococcaceae L-BC03
          |    |--Pycnococcus provasoli L-BC03
          |    `--Pseudoscourfieldia marina L-BC03
          `--+--Nephroselmis Stein 1878 L-BC03, AS12 [Nephroselmidophyceae]
             |    |--N. olivacea L-BC03
             |    `--N. pyriformis AS12
             `--+--Tetraphytae KM01
                `--Chlorodendrophyceae AS12
                     |  i. s.: Scherffelia dubia L-BC03
                     |         Tetraselmis Stein 1878 C03
                     |           |--T. maculata BS-L99
                     |           |--T. striata L-BC03
                     |           `--T. subcordiformis [=Platymonas subcordiformis] BS-L99
                     `--Chlorangiaceae [Chlorodendrineae] S57
                          |--Collinsiella tuberculata Setchell & Gardner 1903 S57
                          `--Prasinocladus lubricus Kuckuck 1984 S57

Chlorophyta incertae sedis:
  Pedinophyceae AS12
    |--Pedinomonas minor GLB04
    `--Marsupiomonas AS12
  Ouracoccus (Hassall) Lindley 1847 [=Haematococcus subg. Ouracoccus Hassall 1845, Urococcus] FT93
    `--*O. allmanii [=Haematococcus allmanii Hassall 1845] FT93
  Pandorina Bory 1824 M70b
    `--P. morum (Muller) Bory 1824 M70b
  Tetrastrum Chodat 1895 M70b
    |--T. multisetum M70b
    `--T. staurogeniaeforme (Schroder) Lemmermann 1895 M70b
  Sorastrum Kutzing 1845 M70b
    `--S. spinulosum Nageli 1849 M70b
  Richteriella Lemmermann 1898 M70b
    `--R. botryoides (Schmidle) Lemmermann 1898 M70b
  Lagerheimia (De Toni) Chodat 1895 M70b
    `--L. longiseta (Lemmermann) Printz 1914 [=Chodatella longiseta] M70b
  Errerella Conrad 1913 M70b
    `--E. bornhemiensis Conrad 1913 M70b
  Golenkinia Chodat 1894 M70b
    `--G. radiata (Chodat) Wille 1911 M70b
  Micractinium Fresenius 1858 M70a
    `--M. quadrisetum (Lemmermann) Smith 1916 M70a
  Calcipatera T97
  Pseudulvella Wille 1910 N10
    `--*P. americana (Snow) Wille 1910 N10
  Tetrasporales A90
    |--Tetrasporaceae A90
    |--Sphaerocystis [Hypnomonadaceae] A90
    |    `--S. schroeteri DH90
    `--Palmellaceae A90
         |--Gloeocystis A90
         |--Hormotila A90
         |--Hormotilopsis A90
         `--Palmella A90
  Tubulistroma Vologdin 1962 G79
    `--*T. scrofulosum Vologdin 1962 G79
  Pterosperma Pouchet 1893 OC09, FT93
    `--P. cristatum OC09
  Chlorosarcinaceae A90
  Crustomastix AS12
  Halosphaera viridis AS12, B26
  Prasinococcus AS12
  Paulschulzia L-BC03
  Pteromonas Seligo 1886 KM01, M70b
    `--P. rectangularis Lemmermann 1900 M70b
  Palmophyllales AS12
    |--Palmophyllum AS12
    |--Palmoclathrus AS12
    `--Verdigellas AS12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69–96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BS-L99] Burger, G., D. Saint-Louis, M. W. Gray & B. F. Lang. 1999. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the red alga Porphyra purpurea: cyanobacterial introns and shared ancestry of red and green algae. Plant Cell 11: 1675–1694.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

[C03] Chan, B. K. K. 2003. Studies on Tetraclita squamosa and Tetraclita japonica (Cirripedia: Thoracica) II: larval morphology and development. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 522–547.

[DH90] Duffy, J. E., & M. E. Hay. 1990. Seaweed adaptations to herbivory. BioScience 40 (5): 368–375.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[GLB04] Gray, M. W., B. F. Lang & G. Burger. 2004. Mitochondria of protists. Annual Review of Genetics 38: 477–524.

[KM01] Karol, K. G., R. M. McCourt, M. T. Cimino & C. F. Delwiche. 2001. The closest living relatives of land plants. Science 294: 2351–2353.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[M70a] Meel, L. van. 1970a. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. V.—Le «Kragewiel» à Bornem. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (1): 1–14.

[M70b] Meel, L. van. 1970b. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.—Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1–56.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[OC09] Okamoto, N., C. Chantangsi, A. Horák, B. S. Leander & P. J. Keeling. 2009. Molecular phylogeny and description of the novel katablepharid Roombia truncata gen. et sp. nov., and establishment of the Hacrobia taxon nov. PLoS One 4 (9): e7080.

[OI05] Okamoto, N., & I. Inouye. 2005. The katablepharids are a distant sister group of the Cryptophyta: a proposal for Katablepharidophyta divisio nova/Kathablepharida phylum novum based on SSU rDNA and beta-tubulin phylogeny. Protist 156: 163–179.

[OS03] O’Kelly, C. J., M. E. Sieracki, E. C. Their & I. C. Hobson. 2003. A transient bloom of Ostreococcus (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae) in West Neck Bay, Long Island, New York. Journal of Phycology 39: 850–854.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[T97] Torres, A. M. 1997. Fossil algae were very different from xenophyophores. Lethaia 29: 287–288.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.

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