Coast beard-heath Cyathodes parviflora, copyright Stephen Bain.

Belongs within: Styphelioideae.

The Styphelieae are a group of ericaceous shrubs with fleshy fruits. In the Australasian genus Pentachondra, the fruits have usually five separate pyrenes whereas fruits of Cyathodes and Leucopogon are five-loculed with a bony endocarp. Cyathodes have flower pedicels bearing many, more or less persistent bracts and a corolla that is more or less glabrous on the upper surface whereas Leucopogon flowers have fewer, caducous bracts on the pedicel and a bearded upper surface on the corolla (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire, with leaf base narrow and one to several longitudinal veins having abaxial fiber cap that contacts abaxial epidermis. Flowers in terminal or reduced axillary racemes; bracts several grading upward in size, or one, mostly small and persistent, sometimes leaflike and caducous; bracteoles 2. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx lobes ciliate, persistent; corolla sympetalous, cylindrical, the lobes straight, spreading or recurved, mostly valvate in bud, occasionally imbricate. Stamens 5, epipetalous; anthers monothecal, with or without appendages. Pollen in monads, sometimes in tetrads or shed as reduced tetrads with one or more cells aborting. Ovary 2–11-locular, each with single ovule, placentation apical, style not impressed. Fruit drupaceous and brightly coloured, sometimes splitting to release endocarp, with sometimes splits into separate pyrenes.

<==Styphelieae [Stenanthereae, Stypheliinae]
    |--Brachyloma daphnoides KJ02
    |--Coleanthera myrtoides KJ02, G04
    |--Conostephium pendulum KJ02, RL05
    |--Croninia KJ02
    |--Cyathopsis KJ02
    |--Decatoca KJ02
    |--Leptecophylla KJ02
    |--Lissanthe strigosa KJ02
    |--Planocarpa KJ02
    |--Trochocarpa thymifolia KJ02
    |--Pentachondra Br. 1810 KJ02, A61
    |    `--P. pumila (Forster & Forster) Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--Melichrus KJ02
    |    |--M. rotatus C08
    |    `--M. urceolatus C08
    |--Acrotriche KJ02
    |    |--A. aggregata KJ02
    |    |--A. hamptonii GMD11
    |    `--A. patula G04
    |--Monotoca KJ02
    |    |--M. elliptica MM09
    |    |--M. glauca KJ02
    |    |--M. leucantha G04
    |    |--M. oreophila B00
    |    `--M. scoparia KJ02
    |--Astroloma KJ02
    |    |--A. baxteri GK00
    |    |--A. cataphractum OS04
    |    |--A. ciliatum RL05
    |    |--A. microcalyx GK00
    |    |--A. pallidum GK00
    |    |--A. prostratum GK00
    |    |--A. serratifolium OS04
    |    |--A. styphelioides MM09
    |    `--A. xerophyllum H18
    |--Styphelia MK08
    |    |--S. abnormis H03
    |    |--S. esquamata M87
    |    |--S. laeta C08
    |    |--S. longiflora H87a
    |    |--S. nesophila H03
    |    |--S. pulchella G04
    |    |--S. suaveolens P88
    |    |--S. tameiameiae MK08
    |    |--S. tenuiflora GK00
    |    |--S. tubiflora KJ02
    |    `--S. viridis C08
    |--Cyathodes Labill. 1804 KJ02, A61
    |    |--C. colensoi Hooker 1864 [=Leucopogon colensoi Hooker 1854] A61
    |    |--C. dealbata W91
    |    |--C. empetrifolia Hooker 1854 [=Androstoma empetrifolia Hooker 1844] A61
    |    |--C. fasciculata (Forster) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. juniperina (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |    |--C. j. var. juniperina A61
    |    |    `--C. j. var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. parviflora (Andr.) Allan 1961 [=Styphelia parviflora Andr. 1803, Leucopogon parviflorus Lindl. 1833] A61
    |    |--C. pumila Hooker 1867 A61
    |    `--C. robusta Hooker 1864 [incl. C. acerosa var. latifolia Hooker 1854] A61
    `--Leucopogon KJ02
         |--L. amplexicaulis H87b
         |--L. attenuatus NC91
         |--L. australis GK00
         |--L. biflorus H87b
         |--L. capitellatus RL05
         |--L. cinereus LK00
         |--L. collinus C08
         |--L. conostephioides RL05
         |--L. cuneifolius G04
         |--L. cymbiformis OS04
         |--L. dielsianus OS04
         |--L. elatior GK00
         |--L. ericoides H87a
         |--L. esquamatus H87b
         |--L. fimbriatus OS04
         |--L. florulentus OS04
         |--L. faseri Cunn. 1839 KJ02, A61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--L. f. var. fraseri A61
         |    `--L. f. var. muscosus Simpson 1945 [=Cyathodes fraseri var. muscosa (Simpson) Allan 1961] A61
         |--L. gibbosus GK00
         |--L. glabellus GK00
         |--L. gracillimus LK00
         |--L. hamulosus S95
         |--L. juniperinus WO88
         |--L. lanceolatus C08
         |--L. lasiophyllus GK00
         |--L. margarodes M65
         |--L. marginatus G04
         |--L. melaleucoides C08
         |--L. microphyllus C08
         |    |--L. m. var. microphyllus C08
         |    `--L. m. var. pilibundus C08
         |--L. muticus KJ02
         |--L. neo-anglicus C08
         |--L. oxycedrus GK00
         |--L. pendulus GK00
         |--L. pogonocalyx OS04
         |--L. polymorphus GK00
         |--L. propinquus GK00
         |--L. pulchellus RL05
         |--L. richei Br. 1810 ME70, A61 [=Styphelia richei Labill. 1804 A61]
         |--L. sprengelioides GK00
         |--L. sulcatus G04
         |--L. tamariscinus GK00
         |--L. unilateralis GK00
         |--L. verticillatus RL05
         `--L. virgatus N91

Cyathodes fasciculata (Forster) Allan 1961 [=Epacris fasciculata Forster 1786, Leucopogon fasciculatus Rich. 1832; incl. L. brevibarbis Stchegl. 1859, L. heterophyllus Colenso 1898] A61

Cyathodes juniperina (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 [=Epacris juniperina Forster & Forster 1776; incl. Ardisia acerosa Gaertn. 1791, Cyathodes acerosa (Gaertn.) Br. 1810, C. articulata Col. 1896, Leucopogon forsteri Rich. 1832] A61

Cyathodes juniperina var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Allan 1961 [=Styphelia oxycedrus Labill. 1804, C. acerosa var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Cheesem. 1906, C. oxycedrus Br. 1810] A61

Leucopogon faseri Cunn. 1839 KJ02, A61 [=Cyathodes fraseri (Cunn.) Allan 1961 A61, Styphelia fraseri Muell. 1867 A61; incl. Leucopogon bellignianus Raoul 1844 A61, Pentachondra mucronata Hook.f. 1849 C06, L. nesophilus DC. 1839 A61]

Pentachondra pumila (Forster & Forster) Br. 1810 [=Epacris pumila Forster & Forster 1776; incl. Trochocarpa novae-zelandiae Col. 1896, Pernettya polyphylla Col. 1899, Pentachondra rubra Col. 1896] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[GMD11] George, A. S., N. L. McKenzie & P. Doughty. 2011. A Biodiversity Survey of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87a] Haviland, E. 1887a. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H87b] Haviland, E. 1887b. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H18] Houston, T. 2018. A Guide to Native Bees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335–423.

[LK00] Lowrie, A., & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293–302.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MK08] Mockford, E. L., & P. D. Krushelnycky. 2008. New species and records of Liposcelis Motschulsky (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) from Hawaii with first description of the male of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel. Zootaxa 1766: 53–68.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[S95] Smith, G. T. 1995. Species richness, habitat and conservation of scorpions in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 55–66.

[WO88] Wakabayashi, M., & H. Ohba. 1988. Cytotaxonomic study of the Himalayan Saxifraga. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 71–90.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.

Last updated: 24 March 2021.

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