Erythrotrichia carnea, copyright Ignacio Bárbara.

Belongs within: Corticata.
Contains: Bangiales, Florideophycidae.

The Rhodophyceae include the red algae, a major group of aquatic photosynthetic organisms. Many red algae are multicellular (forming the clade Macrorhodophytina) but the taxon also includes a number of unicellular or filamentous lineages.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Without ciliated stages, and without centrioles, basal bodies, or other 9 + 2 microtubular structures; polar rings present instead; two-membraned simple chloroplasts, unstacked thylakoids with phycobilisomes, and chlorophyll a only, lacking external endoplasmic reticulum; cytoplasmic carbohydrate reserve floridean starch; chromosomal and interzonal microtubules not converging towards polar rings, so spindle poles very broad; telophase spindle and nuclear envelope persisting with closed mitosis surrounded by perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum; cell wall of cellulose; cells in filamentous forms linked by pit plugs, formed between cells after incomplete cell division; sexual reproduction typically oogamous; triphasic life history common.

<==Rhodophyceae [Bangiophycidae, Rhodophycophyta, Rhodophyta, Rhodoplantae] AS12
    |--Macrorhodophytina C-S98
    |    |--Bangiales C-S98
    |    `--Florideophycidae C-S98
    |--Cyanidiales [Cyanidiophyceae, Cyanidiophyta] AS12
    |    |--Cyanidioschyzon merolae NM03
    |    |--Cyanidium caldarium GP03
    |    `--Galdieria merolae AS12, C-SCL15
    |--Rhodellophyceae [Rhodellophytina] C-S98
    |    |--Dixoniella grisea AS12, MO08
    |    |--Glaucosphaera vacuolata AS12, LA03
    |    `--Rhodella JLG03
    |         |--R. maculata OI05
    |         `--R. violacea JLG03
    |--Porphyridiophyceae AS12
    |    |--Erythrolobus AS12
    |    |--Flintiella sanguinaria AS12, PB04
    |    `--Porphyridium [Porphyridiaceae, Porphyridiales] C-S98
    |         |--P. aerugineum HSA03
    |         `--P. purpureum C-SCL15
    |--Stylonematales [Stylonematophyceae] AS12
    |    |--Stylonema alsidii MO08
    |    |--Bangiopsis subsimplex AS12, MS02
    |    |--Chroodactylon ornatum AS12, MS02
    |    |--Purpureofilum AS12
    |    |--Rhodosorus marinus AS12, MO08
    |    |--Rhodospora AS12
    |    `--Rufusia AS12
    `--Compsopogonales [Compsopogonophyceae] AS12
         |--Rhodochaete [Rhodochaetales] AS12
         |    `--R. parvula PH03
         `--Erythrotrichiaceae SG05
              |--Compsopogon caeruleus MO08
              `--Erythrotrichia MS02
                   |--E. carnea MS02
                   |--E. ciliaris (Carmichael) Batters. 1900 [=Bangia ciliaris] L27
                   |--E. kylinii Gardner 1927 S57
                   `--E. parksii S57
                        |--E. p. var. parksii S57
                        `--E. p. var. minor Gardner 1927 S57

Rhodophyceae incertae sedis:
  Salpingoporella HS02
  Smithora naiadum HSA03
  Kappaphycus alvarezii JLG03
  Schottera nicaeensis W03
  Californiella Poncet 1987 VH01
  Gymnocodium [Gymnocodiaceae] VH01
    `--G. exile Mu 1981 VH01
  Goniotrichum [Goniotrichaceae, Goniotrichales] S57
    |--G. cornu-cervi (Reinsch) Hauck 1885 S57
    `--G. elegans (Chauvin) Zanardini 1847 S57
  ‘Diplocystis’ Agardh 1896 nec Trevisan 1848 nec Berkeley & Curtis 1869 FT93
  Cruoriella Crouan 1859 K98
    `--C. japonica (Segawa) Denizot 1968 [=Cruoriopsis japonica Segawa 1941] K98
  Cruoriopsis aestuarii K98
  Pustularia Vologdin 1955 nec Swainson 1840 (ICZN) nec Gray 1858 (ICZN) G79
    `--*P. taeniata Vologdin 1955 G79
  Rubellophyton Vologdin 1966 G79
    `--*R. rameus Vologdin 1966 G79
  Wurdemannia miniata N10
  Curdiea racovitzae N10
  Pyropia yezoensis C-SCL15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203–266.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[GP03] Gupta, R. S., M. Pereira, C. Chandrasekara & V. Johari. 2003. Molecular signatures in protein sequences that are characteristic of cyanobacteria and plastid homologues. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1833–1842.

[HS02] Höfling, R., & R. W. Scott. 2002. Early and Mid-Cretaceous buildups. SEPM Special Publication 72: 521–548.

[HSA03] Huisman, J. M., A. R. Sherwood & I. A. Abbott. 2003. Morphology, reproduction, and the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), the so-called ‘monosporangial discs’ associated with members of the Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta), and proposal of the Pihiellales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology 39: 978–987.

[JLG03] Jacobsen, S., K. Lüning & F. Goulard. 2003. Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 888–896.

[K98] Kaehler, S. 1998. The non-coralline epilithic encrusting algae of Hong Kong II: additions and identification. Asian Marine Biology 15: 1–17.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[LA03] Longet, D., J. M. Archibald, P. J. Keeling & J. Pawlowski. 2003. Foraminifera and Cercozoa share a common origin according to RNA polymerase II phylogenies. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1735–1739.

[MO08] Moore, R. B., M. Oborník, J. Janouškovec, T. Chrudimský, M. Vancová, D. H. Green, S. W. Wright, N. W. Davies, C. J. S. Bolch, K. Heimann, J. Šlapeta, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. M. Logsdon, Jr. & D. A. Carter. 2008. A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Nature 451: 959–963.

[MS02] Müller, K. M., A. R. Sherwood, C. M. Pueschel, R. R. Gutell & R. G. Sheath. 2002. A proposal for a new red algal order, the Thoreales. Journal of Phycology 38: 807–820.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[NM03] Nozaki, H., M. Matsuzaki, M. Takahara, O. Misumi, H. Kuroiwa, M. Hasegawa, T. Shin-i, Y. Kohara, N. Ogasawara & T. Kuroiwa. 2003. The phylogenetic position of red algae revealed by multiple nuclear genes from mitochondria-containing eukaryotes and an alternative hypothesis on the origin of plastids. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 485–497.

[OI05] Okamoto, N., & I. Inouye. 2005. The katablepharids are a distant sister group of the Cryptophyta: a proposal for Katablepharidophyta divisio nova/Kathablepharida phylum novum based on SSU rDNA and beta-tubulin phylogeny. Protist 156: 163–179.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483–487.

[PB04] Polet, S., C. Berney, J. Fahrni & J. Pawlowski. 2004. Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Phaeodarea challenge the monophyly of Haeckel’s Radiolaria. Protist 155 (1): 53–63.

[SG05] Sau, A., & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 63–86.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[VH01] Vachard, D., M. Hauser, R. Martini, L. Zaninetti, A. Matter & T. Peters. 2001. New algae and problematica of algal affinity from the Permian of the Aseelah Unit of the Batain Plain (East Oman). Geobios 34 (4): 375–404.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

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