Aphididae

Giant conifer aphids Cinara sp., copyright Frank Mikley.


Belongs within: Aphidoidea.
Contains: Aphidini.

The Aphididae, aphids, are a morphologically diverse group of phytophagous bugs that show an alternation between parthenogenetic and sexually reproducing generations, with parthenogenetic individuals usually being wingless and sexually reproducing individuals alate.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Parthenogenetic females viviparous, sexual females oviparous. Antennae 4—6-segmented; apical segment usually with well-delimited processus terminalis; one primary rhinarium basal to processus terminalis and one subapically on penultimate segment; other (secondary, adult) rhinaria present in most alatae and some apterae, usually concentrated on segment III. Eyes of apterae compound or 3—faceted. Siphunculi and cauda (modified apical segment) usually present; paired siphunculi marginally on or near T5, varying from rings to long, cylindrical tubes. Fore wings, if present, tectiform or, less often, held flat in repose; RP mostly present, M simple or 1— or 2-branched, CuA,sub>1 and CuA2 usually separate. Hind wings mostly with 2 oblique veins.

Aphididae [Eriosomatidae, Pemphigidae]
    |--Periphyllus [Chaitophorinae] CGW91
    |    `--P. californiensis CGW91
    |--Hormaphidinae [Hormaphididae] GE05
    |    |--Ceratovacuna lanigera CGW91, MHG04
    |    |--Oregma WEE70
    |    |--Cerataphis WEE70
    |    `--Pseudoregma CGW91
    |         |--P. bambucicola GE05
    |         `--P. panicola CGW91
    |--Pemphiginae GE05
    |    |--Germaraphis Z02
    |    |--Aploneura lentisci M83
    |    |--Geoica lucifuga WEE70
    |    |--Smynthurodes betae WEE70
    |    |--Eriosoma WEE70
    |    |    |--E. lanigerum CGW91
    |    |    `--E. pyricola WEE70
    |    `--Pemphigus SB80
    |         |--P. bursarius CGW91
    |         |--P. populicaulis SB80
    |         |--P. populitransversus SS74
    |         `--P. populivenae S87
    |--Drepanosiphinae [Drepanosiphidae] GE05
    |    |--Jurocallis SP02
    |    |--Drepanosiphum platanoides A71
    |    |--Paoliella CGW91
    |    |--Ceriferella CGW91
    |    |--Neuquenaphis CGW91
    |    |--Lizerius CGW91
    |    |--Taiwanaphis CGW91 [incl. Sensoriaphis AY04]
    |    |    |--T. furcifera CGW91
    |    |    `--T. tasmaniae CGW91 [=Sensoriaphis tasmaniae WEE70]
    |    `--Neophyllaphis CGW91
    |         |--N. brimblecombei CGW91
    |         `--N. gingerensis CGW91
    |--Cinara [Lachnidae, Lachninae] CGW91
    |    |--C. apini H61a
    |    |--C. brevispinosa H61a
    |    |--C. commatula Hottes & Essig 1954 H61c
    |    |--C. diabola Hottes 1961 H61b
    |    |--C. dubia Hottes & Essig 1954 H61c
    |    |--C. essigi Hottes 1961 H61a
    |    |--C. glabra H61b
    |    |--C. montanesa Hottes 1961 H61b
    |    |--C. osborni H61b
    |    |--C. ponderosae H61a
    |    |--C. pseudotaxifoliae Palmer 1952 H61c
    |    |--C. pseudotsugae (Wilson 1912) [=Lachnus pseudotsugae] H61c
    |    |--C. schwarzii H61b
    |    |--C. solitaria H61b
    |    |--C. splendens (Gillette & Palmer 1924) [=Lachnus splendens] H61c
    |    |--C. taxifoliae (Swain 1918) [=Lachnus taxifoliae] H61c
    |    |--C. tsugae Bradley 1960 H61c
    |    |--C. vagabunda Hottes & Essig 1953 H61c
    |    `--C. wahsugae Hottes 1960 H61c
    `--Aphidinae GE05
         |  i. s.: Aphidocallis caudatus GE05
         |         Cavariella aegopodii CGW91
         |         Aulacorthum CGW91
         |           |--A. circumflexum A71
         |           `--A. solani CGW91
         |         Brachycaudus CGW91
         |           |--B. helichrysi CGW91
         |           |--B. persicae CGW91
         |           `--B. (Appelia) schwartzi (Börner 1931) MF05
         |         Hyalopterus pruni CGW91
         |         Macrosiphum CGW91
         |           |--M. colylicola Shinji 1930 TYM08
         |           |--M. euphorbiae WFS04
         |           |--M. miscanthi WEE70
         |           |--M. (Macrosiphum) rosae (Linnaeus 1758) MF05
         |           `--M. urticae (Linnaeus 1758) V09, L58 [=Aphis urticae V09]
         |         Metopolophium dirhodum CGW91
         |         Myzus CGW91
         |           |--M. ascalonicus CGW91
         |           |--M. cymbalariae CGW91
         |           |--M. inuzakurae Shinji 1930 TYM08
         |           |--M. ornatus CGW91
         |           `--M. persicae B88
         |         Capitophorus elaeagni CGW91
         |         Hyperomyzus lactucae CGW91
         |         Rhopalosiphum CGW91
         |           |--R. insertum CGW91
         |           |--R. maidis CGW91
         |           |--R. nymphaeae CGW91
         |           |--R. padi M83
         |           `--R. rufiabdominalis CGW91
         |         Neomyzus circumflexus WEE70
         |         Brevicoryne brassicae WEE70
         |         Lipaphis erysimi WEE70
         |         Chaetosiphon fragaefolii WEE70
         |         Elatobium abietinum WEE70
         |         Idiopterus nephrelepidis WEE70
         |         Shinjia pteridifoliae WEE70
         |         Longiunguis sacchari WEE70
         `--Aphidini NNA-ZPH05

Aphididae incertae sedis:
  Acyrthosiphon WCH11
    |--A. kondoi CGW91
    `--A. pisum WCH11
  Uroleucon LD04
  Macrosiphoniella madeirensis Aguiar & Ilharco 2005 F05
  Pseudoprotaphis Kadyrbekov 2001 F05
    `--*P. erigerontis (Holman 1966) [=Aphis (Protaphis) erigerontis] F05
  Tuberocephalus Shinji 1929 TYM08
    `--T. artemisiae Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Caraviella azamii Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Eumyzus Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Amphorophora katsurae Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Illinoia kerriae Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Macrocaudus Shinji 1930 TYM08
    `--M. phaseoli Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Microtarsus Shinji 1929 TYM08
    `--M. pterydifoliae Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Anuraphis mumecola Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Pseudomegoura Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Somaphis Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Trama taraxaci Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Trichonosiphoniella Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Tuberocorpus Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Microlophium carnosum V09
  Pterochlorus rosae H01
  Chromaphis juglandicola KU07
  Panaphis juglandis KU07
  Calaphis CGW91
  Euceraphis CGW91
  Therioaphis trifolii CGW91
  Neotoxoptera oliveri CGW91
  Sitobion avenae CGW91, K09
  Pentalonia nigronervosa CGW91
  Megoura viciae N70
  Kallistaphis basalis WEE70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[H61a] Hottes, F. C. 1961a. A new species of Cinara from knob-cone pine (Aphidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 1–2.

[H61b] Hottes, F. C. 1961b. Two new species of Cinara from California (Aphidae) which have Pinus coulteri as host. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 95–100.

[H61c] Hottes, F. C. 1961c. Notes on and a key to species of the genus Cinara (Aphidae) which have Tsuga and Pseudotsuga for host. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 111–118.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[LD04] Lin, C.-P., & B. N. Danforth. 2004. How do insect nuclear and mitochondrial gene substitution patterns differ? Insights from Bayesian analyses of combined datasets. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 686–702.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J., & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163–179.

[NNA-ZPH05] Nieto Nafría, J. M., M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga & N. Pérez Hidalgo. 2005. Toxoptera citricida or Toxoptera citricidus? The validity of a specific name (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Aphidini). Graellsia 61 (1): 141–142.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[S87] Sabrosky, C. W. 1987. Chloropidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1067. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SS74] Senner, J. W., & R. R. Sokal. 1974. Analysis of dimorphism in natural populations with consideration of methodological and epistemological problems. Systematic Zoology 23 (3): 363–386.

[SB80] Sokal, R. R., & C. A. Braumann. 1980. Significance tests for coefficients of variation and variability profiles. Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 50–66.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WCH11] Welch, K. D., P. R. Crain & J. D. Harwood. 2011. Phenological dynamics of web-building spider populations in alfalfa: implications for biological control. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 244–249.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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