Mysmenidae

Trogloneta granulum, from Pavouci.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.

The Mysmenidae are minute spiders found in crevices or leaf litter in very humid habitats (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Very small; eight eyes; three tarsal claws; ecribellate; entelegyne; male with mating spine on metatarsus I (occasionally also on tibia I); cymbium of male palp with lobes or apophyses; female and sometimes males with sclerotised subdistal ventral spot on anterior femora.

Mysmenidae [Mysmeninae]
    |--Isela okuncana Griswold 1985 A02
    |--Kilifina S03
    |--Maymena JD-S07
    |--Microdipoena Banks 1895 S03
    |    `--M. nyungwe Baert 1989 S03
    |--Mysmenella Brignoli 1980 MG03
    |    `--M. jobi (Kraus 1967) [=Mysmena jobi] MG03
    |--Mysmenopsis Simon 1897 S03
    |    |--M. pachacutec JD-S07
    |    `--M. viracocha JD-S07
    |--Mysmena Simon 1894 MG03
    |    |--M. leucoplagiata (Simon 1879) MG03
    |    `--M. tasmaniae FF99
    `--Trogloneta Simon 1922 S03
         |--T. granulum Simon 1922 S03
         `--T. madeirensis Wunderlich 1987 S03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[S03] Schütt, K. 2003. Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae s.l. (Araneae, Araneoidea). Zoologica Scripta 32 (2): 129–151.

Apodinae

Mariana swiftlet Aerodromus bartschi, copyright Jack Jeffrey.


Belongs within: Apodi.
Contains: Collocalia, Apodini.

The Apodinae includes the spine-tailed swifts, typical swifts and swiftlets. Members of this group have eutaxic wings, i.e. wings with the full complement of secondary flight feathers, in contrast to the diastataxic wings of the Cypseloidinae.

<==Apodinae [Chaetureae, Chaeturinae, Chaeturini] CC10
    |  i. s.: Mearnsia MPA77
    |           |--M. novaeguineae MPA77
    |           `--M. picina JT12
    |         Zoonavena MPA77
    |           |--Z. grandidieri MPA77
    |           |--Z. sylvatica JT12
    |           `--Z. thomensis MPA77
    |--Hirundapus Hodgson 1837 BKB15, CC10
    |    |--H. caudacutus (Latham 1802) [=Hirundo caudacuta, Chaetura caudacuta, Choetura (l. c.) caudacuta] CC10
    |    |    |--H. c. caudacutus CC10
    |    |    `--*H. c. nudipes CC10
    |    |--H. celebensis JT12
    |    |--H. cochinchinensis VP89
    |    `--H. giganteus JT12
    `--+--+--Neafrapus BKB15
       |  |    |--N. boehmi JT12
       |  |    `--N. cassini MPA77
       |  `--+--Rhaphidura BKB15
       |     |    |--R. leucopygialis JT12
       |     |    `--R. sabini MPA77
       |     `--Chaetura Stephens 1826 BKB15, CC10
       |          |  i. s.: C. baconica Jánossy 1977 M02
       |          |         C. brachyura [incl. C. cinereicauda Cassin 1895] S18
       |          |         C. egregia JT12
       |          |         C. fumosa JT12 [=C. cinereiventris fumosa S18]
       |          |         C. gigantea FP64
       |          |         C. grandidieri S66
       |          |         C. martinica JT12
       |          |         C. melanopygia FP64
       |          |         C. meridionalis JT12
       |          |         C. spinicaudus JT12
       |          |         C. viridipennis JT12
       |          |--C. cinereiventris JT12
       |          `--+--+--C. andrei BKB15
       |             |  `--C. chapmani Hellmayr 1907 JT12, S18
       |             `--+--C. pelagica JT12
       |                `--C. vauxi JT12
       `--+--+--Collocalia JT12
          |  `--+--Hydrochous gigas BKB15
          |     `--Aerodramus BKB15
          |          |--A. papuensis BKB15
          |          `--+--A. vulcanorum BKB15
          |             `--+--+--+--A. brevirostris BKB15
          |                |  |  `--A. maximus BKB15
          |                |  `--+--A. terraereginae BKB15 [=A. spodiopygius terraereginae M03]
          |                |     `--A. whiteheadi BKB15
          |                `--+--+--A. vanikorensis BKB15
          |                   |  `--+--A. bartschi BKB15 [=A. vanikorensis bartschi FR98]
          |                   |     `--A. sawtelli BKB15
          |                   `--+--A. spodiopygius BKB15
          |                      |    |--A. s. spodiopygius M03
          |                      |    `--A. s. chillagoensis M03
          |                      `--+--A. mearnsi BKB15
          |                         `--+--+--A. elaphrus BKB15
          |                            |  `--A. francicus BKB15
          |                            `--+--A. fuciphagus BKB15
          |                               `--A. salangana BKB15
          `--Apodini MPA77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FR98] Fritts, T. H., & G. H. Rodda. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: a case history of Guam. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 113–140.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[MPA77] Moss, W. W., P. C. Peterson & W. T. Atyeo. 1977. A multivariate assessment of phenetic relationships within the feather mite family Eustathiidae (Acari). Systematic Zoology 26 (4): 386–409.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Streptopelia

Red-eyed dove Streptopelia semitorquata, copyright Atamari.


Belongs within: Columbidae.

Streptopelia, the turtledoves, is a genus of pigeons found in Africa and southern Asia. Members of this genus generally have pinkish underparts and a distinctive collar of black or black and white patterning around the nape.

See also: The voice of the turtle.

<==Streptopelia Bonaparte 1855 [incl. Turtur Selby 1835 non Boddaert 1783] T62
    |  i. s.: *S. risoria Linnaeus 1758 CC10 [=Columba risoria CC10, S. decaocto risoria FP64, Turtur risorius CC10]
    |         S. lugens (Rüppell 1837) S05 [=Columba lugens S05, Turtur lugens T62]
    |           |--S. l. lugens T62
    |           `--S. l. funebrea T62
    |         S. reichenowi FP64
    |--+--S. capicola JT12
    |  |    |--S. c. capicola T62
    |  |    |--S. c. anceps T62
    |  |    |--S. c. bailundensis T62
    |  |    |--S. c. damarensis T62
    |  |    |--S. c. dryas T62
    |  |    |--S. c. electa T62
    |  |    |--S. c. hilgerti T62
    |  |    |--S. c. somalica T62
    |  |    `--S. c. tropica T62
    |  `--S. vinacea JT12
    |       |--S. v. vinacea T62
    |       |--S. v. barbaru T62
    |       |--S. v. erythreae T62
    |       |--S. v. grotei T62
    |       |--S. v. savannae T62
    |       `--S. v. schoana T62
    `--+--+--S. semitorquata JT12
       |  |    |--S. s. semitorquata T62
       |  |    |--S. s. erythrophrys T62
       |  |    |--S. s. maxima T62
       |  |    `--S. s. minor T62
       |  `--+--S. decipiens JT12
       |     |    |--S. d. decipiens T62
       |     |    |--S. d. ambigua T62
       |     |    |--S. d. elegans T62
       |     |    |--S. d. griseiventris T62
       |     |    |--S. d. logonensis T62
       |     |    |--S. d. permista T62
       |     |    |--S. d. perspicillata T62
       |     |    `--S. d. shelleyi T62
       |     `--+--S. decaocto (Frivaldszky 1838) JT12, I92
       |        |    |--S. d. decaocto T62
       |        |    |--S. d. stoliczkae T62
       |        |    `--S. d. xanthocyclus T62
       |        `--S. roseogrisea (Sundevall 1857) JT12, CC10 [=Columba roseogrisea CC10]
       `--+--S. tranquebarica BKB15 [=Oenopopelia tranquebarica]
          |    |--S. t. tranquebarica T62
          |    |--S. t. humilis T62
          |    `--S. t. murmensis T62
          `--+--S. bitorquata (Temminck in Knip 1811) BKB15, CC10 [=Columba bitorquata CC10]
             |    |--S. b. bitorquata L81
             |    `--S. b. dusumieri L81
             `--+--S. orientalis JT12 [=Turtur orientalis T62]
                |    |--S. o. orientalis T62
                |    |--S. o. agricola [=Columba agricola] T62
                |    |--S. o. meena T62
                |    |--S. o. orii T62
                |    `--S. o. stimpsoni T62
                `--+--S. hypopyrrha JT12 [=S. lugens hypopyrrha T62]
                   `--S. turtur (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 [=Columba turtur CC10, Turtur turtur T62]
                        |--S. t. turtur S05
                        |--S. t. arenicola T62
                        |--S. t. hoggara T62
                        |--S. t. isabellina (Bonaparte 1856) S05 [=Turtur isabellinus T62]
                        `--S. t. loei T62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

Ploceidae

Male red fody Foudia madagascariensis, copyright Spacebirdy.


Belongs within: Passeroidea.
Contains: Malimbus, Ploceus, Euplectes.

The Ploceidae, weavers, are a group of granivorous birds found in Africa and southern Asia. Many species nest communally, with nests placed close together or sometimes conjoined into large unified structures that may house hundreds of birds.

<==Ploceidae [Alectuinae, Bubalornithinae, Ploceinae, Plocepasserinae, Textorinae]
    |  i. s.: Pyromelana orix A61
    |         Hyphanturgus ocularis A61
    |         Anaplectes rubriceps JT12
    |         Brachycope anomala JT12
    |         Malimbus JF06
    |--+--Ploceus BKB15
    |  `--+--‘Euplectes’ afer JT12
    |     `--+--‘Euplectes’ ardens BKB15 [=Ploceus ardens S05]
    |        |    |--E. a. ardens S05
    |        |    `--E. a. laticauda (Lichtenstein 1823) (see below for synonymy) S05
    |        `--‘Euplectes’ hordeaceus BKB15
    `--+--Amblyospiza Sundevall 1850 BKB15, B94 [Amblyospizinae]
       |    `--A. albifrons FP64
       `--+--+--+--‘Ploceus’ hypoxanthus JT12
          |  |  `--+--‘Ploceus’ manyar JT12
          |  |     `--‘Ploceus’ philippinus JT12
          |  `--+--Philetairus Smith 1837 BKB15, B94 [Philetairinae]
          |     |    `--P. socius JF06
          |     `--Plocepasser Smith 1836 JT12, B94
          |          |--P. donaldsoni JT12
          |          |--P. mahali JF06
          |          |    |--P. m. mahali S05
          |          |    `--P. m. melanorhynchus Rüppell 1845 S05
          |          |--P. rufoscapulatus JT12
          |          `--P. superciliosus (Cretzschmar 1827) [=Ploceus superciliosus] S05
          `--+--+--Dinemellia dinemelli (Rüppell 1845) BKB15, S05 (see below for synonymy)
             |  `--Bubalornis Smith 1836 BKB15, B94 [incl. Alecto Lesson 1831 non Leach 1815 B94]
             |       |--B. albirostris FP64
             |       `--B. niger JT12
             `--+--Sporopipes Cabanis 1847 BKB15, B94 [Sporopipinae]
                |    |--S. frontalis JF06
                |    `--S. squamifrons JF06
                `--+--+--+--‘Ploceus’ luteolus BKB15
                   |  |  `--‘Ploceus’ velatus BKB15 [incl. P. velatus inustus Clancey 1959 B93]
                   |  `--+--‘Ploceus’ intermedius Rüppell 1845 BKB15, S05
                   |     `--+--‘Ploceus’ melanocephalus JT12
                   |        |    |--P. m. melanocephalus L81
                   |        |    `--P. m. capitalis L81
                   |        `--‘Ploceus’ taeniopterus JT12
                   `--+--+--Quelea JT12
                      |  |    |--Q. cardinalis JF06
                      |  |    |--Q. erythrops JT12
                      |  |    `--Q. quelea JF06
                      |  `--Foudia JT12
                      |       |--F. bruante FP64
                      |       |--F. eminentissima S66
                      |       |--F. erythrops D66
                      |       |--F. flavicans JT12 [=Ploceus flavicans S66]
                      |       |--F. madagascariensis L81
                      |       |--F. omissa JT12
                      |       |--F. rubra JT12
                      |       `--F. sechellarum L81
                      `--Euplectes JT12

Dinemellia dinemelli (Rüppell 1845) BKB15, S05 [=Textor dinemelli S05; incl. T. leucocephalus Rüppell 1845 S05, Ploceuspasser leucocephalus S05]

‘Euplectes’ ardens laticauda (Lichtenstein 1823) [incl. Fringilla rufitorques ms, Coliuspasser torquatus Rüppell 1840] S05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324–332.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

Estrilda

Orange-cheeked waxbill Estrilda melpoda, copyright Rainbirder.


Belongs within: Estrildidae.

Estrilda, the waxbills, is a genus of finch-like birds found in Africa and Arabia. Most species have bright red bills whose waxy appearance gives them their vernacular name.

<==Estrilda Swainson 1827 [=Astrilda (l. c.), Estrelda (l. c.)] B94
    |--+--E. caerulescens BKB15
    |  `--E. erythronotos JF06
    `--+--E. perreini BKB15
       `--+--+--E. melpoda BKB15
          |  `--E. rhodopyga BKB15
          `--+--E. nonnula BKB15
             `--+--+--E. astrild BKB15
                |  |    |--E. a. astrild L81
                |  |    |--E. a. jagoensis L81
                |  |    `--E. a. sanctaehelenae L81
                |  `--E. atricapilla BKB15
                `--+--E. paludicola BKB15
                   `--E. troglodytes BKB15

Estrilda incertae sedis:
  E. amandava A61
  E. formosa A61
  E. charmosyna JT12
  E. kandti JT12
  E. locustella FP64
  E. nigriloris JT12
  E. nitidula A61
  E. poliopareia JT12
  E. rufibarba JT12
  E. thomensis JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

Euphonia

Male chestnut-bellied euphonia Euphonia pectoralis, copyright Dario Sanches.


Belongs within: Fringillidae.

Euphonia is a Neotropical genus of frugivorous birds. They are small and dumpy, with a short tail and stubby bill. Males are commonly patterned in dark and yellow whereas females are olive-green (Austin 1961).

<==Euphonia Desmarest 1806 [incl. Tanagra Linnaeus 1764 (nom. rej.); Euphoniinae, Tanagrinae] B94
    |--+--E. pectoralis BKB15
    |  `--+--E. affinis JT12
    |     `--+--E. chlorotica JT12
    |        `--E. finschi JT12
    `--+--E. cyanocephala BKB15
       `--+--+--E. fulvicrissa BKB15
          |  `--E. gouldi JT12
          `--+--E. musica BKB15 [=Tanagra musica SWK87]
             |    |--E. m. musica L81
             |    `--E. m. sclateri L81
             `--+--E. hirundinacea BKB15
                `--E. laniirostris JT12

Euphonia incertae sedis:
  E. anneae JT12
  E. cayennensis JT12
  E. chalybea JT12
  E. chrysopasta JT12
  ‘Tanagra’ coelestis SS66
  E. concinna JT12
  ‘Tanagra’ crassirostris S18
  ‘Tanagra’ darwini [incl. T. frugilegus] Sc66
  E. elegantissima JT12
  ‘Tanagra’ fulvicrissa S18
  E. gracilis Sa66
  E. imitans JT12
  E. jamaica JT12
  E. luteicapilla JT12 [=Tanagra luteicapilla A61]
  ‘Tanagra’ melanoptera SS66
  E. melanura SS66
  E. mesochrysa JT12
  E. minuta SS66 [=Tanagra minuta S18]
    |--E. m. minuta S18
    `--‘Tanagra’ m. humilis S18
  E. plumbea JT12
  E. ruficeps Sa66
  E. rufiventris JT12
  E. rufivertex Salvin 1866 Sa66
  E. saturata JT12
  ‘Tanagra’ striata Sc66
  E. trinitatis JT12
  E. violacea SS66
  E. xanthogaster JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[Sa66] Salvin, O. 1866. Descriptions of eight new species of birds from Veragua. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 67–76.

[Sc66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. On the birds in the vicinity of Lima, Peru. With notes on their habits, by Prof. W. Nation, of Lima, C. M. Z. S. (Part I.) Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 96–100.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

Carduelinae

Yellow canaries Serinus flaviventris, copyright Jaffles.


Belongs within: Fringillidae.
Contains: Drepaninini, Carpodacus, Pyrrhula, Loxia, Acanthis, Carduelis, Serinus, Spinus, Chloris.

The Carduelinae are a group of finches found in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas. They have upper bills that are generally distinctly longer than the lower bill, and a well-developed crop that is used to store food. Nestlings are fed on regurgitated seeds rather than on insects.

<==Carduelinae [Carduelidae, Carduelina, Carduelini] SA82
    |--+--+--‘Emberiza’ affinis BKB15
    |  |  `--Coccothraustes Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 [Coccothraustinae]
    |  |       |--C. abeillei JT12
    |  |       |--C. balcanicus Boev 1998 M02
    |  |       |--C. coccothraustes (Linnaeus 1758) [=Loxia coccothraustes] M02
    |  |       |--C. japonicus Temm. & Schl. 1850 M01 [=C. vulgaris japonicus M01, C. coccothraustes japonicus VP89]
    |  |       |--C. simeonovi Boev 1998 M02
    |  |       `--C. vespertinus [=Hesperiphona vespertinus] JF06
    |  `--+--Eophona JT12
    |     |    |--E. migratoria VP89
    |     |    `--E. personata VP89 [=Coccothraustes personatus T89]
    |     `--Mycerobas JT12
    |          |--M. affinis JF06
    |          |--M. carnipes JF06
    |          |--M. icterioides JT12
    |          `--M. melanozanthos JT12
    `--+--+--+--Bucanetes githagineus BKB15
       |  |  `--Eremopsaltria mongolicus JT12
       |  `--Drepaninini BKB15
       `--+--+--Carpodacus BKB15
          |  `--+--Bucanetes mongolicus BKB15
          |     `--+--+--Pinicola BKB15
          |        |  |    |--P. enucleator JF06
          |        |  |    `--P. subhimachala JT12
          |        |  `--Pyrrhula BKB15
          |        `--+--Pyrrhoplectes epauletta BKB15
          |           `--Leucosticte BKB15
          |                |  i. s.: L. sillemi JT12
          |                |--+--L. nemoricola BKB15
          |                |  `--‘Carpodacus’ nipalensis BKB15
          |                `--+--L. brandti JT12
          |                   `--+--L. arctoa JT12
          |                      `--+--L. tephrocotis JT12
          |                         `--+--L. atrata JT12
          |                            `--L. australis JT12
          `--+--+--‘Carpodacus’ mexicanus BKB15
             |  |    |--C. m. mexicanus L81
             |  |    |--C. m. amplus MS55
             |  |    `--C. m. frontalis L81
             |  `--+--‘Carpodacus’ cassinii BKB15
             |     `--‘Carpodacus’ purpureus JT12
             `--+--Rhodospiza obsoleta BKB15
                `--+--+--+--Loxia BKB15
                   |  |  `--Acanthis BKB15
                   |  `--+--+--Carduelis BKB15
                   |     |  `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinella BKB15
                   |     |     `--‘Serinus’ corsicanus BKB15
                   |     `--+--‘Serinus’ thibetanus BKB15
                   |        `--+--Serinus BKB15
                   |           `--+--Linota Bonaparte 1838 [Linotinae] CC10
                   |              |    |--*L. cannabina (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                   |              |    `--L. flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |              `--Spinus BKB15
                   `--+--+--+--+--+--Pseudochloroptila totta BKB15 [=Serinus totta JT12]
                      |  |  |  |  `--+--‘Serinus’ striolatus (Rüppell 1840) JT12, S05 [=Pyrrhula striolata S05]
                      |  |  |  |     `--‘Serinus’ whytii JT12
                      |  |  |  `--‘Serinus’ burtoni BKB15
                      |  |  `--+--‘Serinus’ albogularis BKB15
                      |  |     `--+--+--‘Serinus’ gularis BKB15
                      |  |        |  `--‘Serinus’ reichardi BKB15
                      |  |        `--+--‘Serinus’ mennelli BKB15
                      |  |           `--+--‘Serinus’ flaviventris BKB15
                      |  |              |    |--S. f. flaviventris B93
                      |  |              |    |--S. f. marshalli L81
                      |  |              |    `--S. f. quintoni Winterbottom 1959 B93
                      |  |              `--‘Serinus’ sulphuratus JT12
                      |  `--+--+--‘Serinus’ scotops BKB15
                      |     |  `--+--‘Serinus’ capistratus JT12
                      |     |     `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinelloides Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 (see below for synonymy)
                      |     |        `--‘Serinus’ hypostictus JT12
                      |     `--+--‘Serinus’ dorsostriatus BKB15
                      |        `--+--‘Serinus’ mozambicus BKB15
                      |           |    |--S. m. mozambicus L81
                      |           |    `--S. m. tando L81
                      |           `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinipectus BKB15
                      |              `--+--‘Serinus’ atrogularis JT12
                      |                 |    |--S. a. atrogularis B93
                      |                 |    `--S. a. lwenarum White 1944 B93
                      |                 `--‘Serinus’ leucopygius JT12
                      `--+--Linurgus olivaceus BKB15
                         `--+--Rhodopechys JT12
                            |    |--R. obsoletus JT12
                            |    `--R. sanguineus JT12
                            `--Chloris BKB15

*Linota cannabina (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, M02 [=Fringilla cannabina M02, Carduelis cannabina BKB15]

Linota flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Fringilla flavirostris CC10, Carduelis flavirostris BKB15]

‘Serinus’ citrinelloides Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 [incl. Fringilla chrysola ms S05, F. serina S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130–140.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Icteridae

Western meadowlark Sturnella neglecta, copyright Kevin Cole.


Belongs within: Passeroidea.
Contains: Cacicus, Icterus, Quiscalus.

The Icteridae, sometimes referred to as New World Orioles or New World blackbirds, are a family of small to large passerine birds found in North and South America. Icterids have pointed bills and generally dark, often glossy plumage, often also with brightly-coloured patches (Internet Bird Collection).

<==Icteridae [Icterinae, Icterini]
    |--+--+--Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus JF06
    |  |  `--Dolichonyx Swainson 1827 JF06, B94 [Dolichonychinae]
    |  |       `--D. oryzivorus JF06
    |  `--Sturnella Vieillot 1816 JF06, B94 [incl. Trupialis Bonaparte 1850 B94; Sturnellinae, Trupialinae]
    |       |  i. s.: S. defilippii JT12
    |       |--+--S. bellicosa JT12
    |       |  `--S. militaris JT12 [=Leistes militaris JF06]
    |       `--+--+--S. loyca JT12
    |          |  `--S. superciliaris JT12
    |          `--+--S. magna JT12
    |             `--S. neglecta Audubon 1844 JT12, CC10
    `--+--Cacicus JT12
       `--+--Icterus JT12
          `--+--Amblycercus holosericeus JT12
             `--+--Nesopsar nigerrimus BKB15
                `--+--Dives BKB15
                   |    |--D. atroviolaceus JT12
                   |    |--D. dives JT12
                   |    `--D. warszewiczi JF06
                   `--+--Agelaius Vieillot 1816 BKB15, B94 [Agelaiinae, Aglaiinae]
                      |    |  i. s.: A. assimilis JT12 [=A. phoeniceus assimilis MS55]
                      |    |--+--A. humeralis JF06
                      |    |  `--A. xanthomus JF06
                      |    `--+--A. phoeniceus (Linnaeus 1766) JF06, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      |       `--A. tricolor JF06
                      `--+--Molothrus Swainson 1832 BKB15, B94 [incl. Scaphidura Swainson 1837 B94; Molothrinae]
                         |    |  i. s.: M. armenti JT12
                         |    |--M. rufoaxillaris JF06
                         |    `--+--M. oryzivorus JT12 [=Scaphidura oryzivora JF06]
                         |       `--+--M. aeneus JF06
                         |          `--+--M. ater JF06
                         |             `--M. bonariensis JF06
                         `--+--+--Quiscalus BKB15
                            |  `--Euphagus JT12
                            |       |--E. carolinus JF06
                            |       |--E. cyanocephalus JF06
                            |       `--E. magnirostris FP64
                            `--+--Macroagelaius subalaris BKB15
                               `--+--+--Macroagelaius imthurni BKB15
                                  |  `--+--Gymnomystax BKB15
                                  |     |    |--G. melanicterus SS66
                                  |     |    `--G. mexicanus JF06
                                  |     `--+--Lampropsar tanagrinus BKB15
                                  |        `--Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster JT12
                                  `--+--+--Amblyramphus holosericeus BKB15
                                     |  `--Curaeus JF06
                                     |       |--C. curaeus JF06
                                     |       `--C. forbesi JT12
                                     `--+--Agelasticus BKB15
                                        |    |--A. thilius JT12 [=Agelaius thilius JF06]
                                        |    `--+--A. cyanopus JT12 [=Agelaius cyanopus JF06]
                                        |       `--A. xanthophthalmus JT12 [=Agelaius xanthophtalmus JF06]
                                        `--+--+--Gnorimopsar chopi BKB15
                                           |  `--Chrysomus BKB15
                                           |       |--C. icterocephalus JT12 [=Agelaius icterocephalus JF06]
                                           |       `--C. ruficapillus JT12 [=Agelaius ruficapillus JF06]
                                           `--+--+--Agelaioides badius BKB15 [=Molothrus badius JF06]
                                              |  `--Oreopsar bolivianus JF06
                                              `--+--Xanthopsar flavus BKB15 [=Agelaius flavus JF06]
                                                 `--Pseudoleistes JF06
                                                      |--P. guirahuro JF06
                                                      `--P. virescens JF06

Icteridae incertae sedis:
  Zarhynchus wagleri A61
  Tangavius FP64
    |--T. aeneus FS55
    `--T. armenti FP64
  Cassiculus SS66
    |--C. melanicterus FP64
    `--C. solitarius [incl. C. nigerrimus] SS66
  Ostinops SS66
    |--O. angustifrons SS66
    |--O. atrovirens SS66
    |--O. cristatus SS66
    `--O. yuracarium SS66
  Xanthosomus icterocephalus SS66
  Pezites militaris L81
  Megaquiscalus major S18
    |--M. m. major S18
    `--M. m. macrourus S18

Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus 1766) JF06, CC10 [=Oriolus phoeniceus CC10, A. phaeniceus (l. c.) CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

Serinus

European serin Serinus serinus, copyright Luis García.


Belongs within: Carduelinae.

Serinus, the canaries, is a genus of finches found in Europe and Africa. Members of this genus have yellowish or greenish streaked plumage.

<==Serinus Koch 1816 [Serininae] M02
    |--+--S. canaria (Linnaeus 1758) JF06, CC10 [=Fringilla canaria CC10, S. canarius (l. c.) CC10]
    |  `--S. serinus JF06
    `--+--S. pusillus JF06
       `--+--S. alario JF06 [=Alario alario BKB15]
          `--+--S. canicollis JF06
             `--S. flavivertex (Blanford 1869) JT12, S05 [=S. canicollis flavivertex S05]

Serinus incertae sedis:
  S. ankoberensis JT12
  S. buchanani JT12
  S. butyracea [=Crithagra butyracea] L81
  S. donaldsoni JT12
  S. estherae JT12
  S. flavigula JT12
  S. frontalis JT12
  S. icterus [incl. Crithagra chrysopyga] S66
  S. leucopterus JT12
  S. koliensis JT12
  S. melanochrous JT12
  S. menachensis JT12
  S. nigriceps Rüppell 1840 S05
  S. rothschildi JT12
  S. rufobrunneus JT12
  S. symonsi JT12
  S. syriacus JT12
  S. tristriatus JT12
  S. xantholaemus JT12
  S. xanthopygius Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 [=S. atrogularis xanthopygius S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

Icterus

Male hooded oriole Icterus cucullatus, copyright Linda Tanner.


Belongs within: Icteridae.

Icterus, the New World orioles, is a genus of strikingly coloured birds found in North and South America. Members of this genus have a pointed bill and a long tail; males are black and yellow or orange with white markings, with females being duller.

<==Icterus Brisson 1760 [incl. Xanthornus Pallas 1769; Xanthorninae] B94
    |  i. s.: I. giraudi S18
    |         I. northropi HSS13
    |         I. sclateri FS55
    |--+--+--I. parisorum JF06
    |  |  `--+--I. chrysater JF06
    |  |     `--I. graduacauda JF06
    |  `--+--I. leucopteryx JT12
    |     `--+--+--I. auratus JT12
    |        |  `--+--I. gularis JF06
    |        |     `--I. nigrogularis JF06
    |        `--+--+--I. abeillei JT12 [=I. bullockii abeillei R70]
    |           |  `--I. galbula JT12
    |           `--+--I. bullockii JT12 [=I. galbula bullockii R70; incl. I. bullockii parvus van Rossem 1945 R70]
    |              `--I. pustulatus JT12
    `--+--I. maculialatus BKB15
       `--+--+--I. mesomelas BKB15
          |  |    |--I. m. mesomelas S18
          |  |    `--I. m. salvinii S18
          |  `--+--I. croconotus BKB15
          |     |--+--I. graceannae JF06
          |     |  `--I. pectoralis JF06
          |     `--+--I. icterus JF06
          |        |    |--I. i. icterus L81
          |        |    `--I. i. ridgwayi L81
          |        `--I. jamacaii JF06 [=I. icterus jamacaii L81]
          `--+--I. wagleri JF06
             `--+--+--I. cucullatus BKB15
                |  `--+--I. prosthemelas BKB15
                |     `--+--I. fuertesi BKB15
                |        `--I. spurius BKB15
                `--+--I. laudabilis BKB15
                   `--+--I. oberi BKB15
                      `--+--+--I. auricapillus BKB15
                         |  `--I. dominicensis JT12
                         `--+--I. bonana BKB15
                            `--+--I. cayanensis BKB15
                               `--I. chrysocephalus BKB15

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

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