Mariana swiftlet Aerodromus bartschi, copyright Jack Jeffrey.

Belongs within: Apodi.
Contains: Apodini, Collocalia.

The Apodinae includes the spine-tailed swifts, typical swifts and swiftlets. Members of this group have eutaxic wings, i.e. wings with the full complement of secondary flight feathers, in contrast to the diastataxic wings of the Cypseloidinae. In the spine-tailed swifts of the genera Hirundapus and Chaetura, the tail feathers have the ends of the shafts extending past the vanes as sharp needles.

<==Apodinae [Chaetureae, Chaeturinae, Chaeturini] CC10
    |  i. s.: Mearnsia MPA77
    |           |--M. novaeguineae JT12
    |           `--M. picina JT12
    |         Zoonavena MPA77
    |           |--Z. grandidieri JT12
    |           |--Z. sylvatica JT12
    |           `--Z. thomensis JT12
    |--Hirundapus Hodgson 1837 BKB15, CC10
    |    |--H. caudacutus (Latham 1802) [=Hirundo caudacuta, Chaetura caudacuta, Choetura (l. c.) caudacuta] CC10
    |    |    |--H. c. caudacutus CC10
    |    |    `--*H. c. nudipes CC10
    |    |--H. celebensis JT12
    |    |--H. cochinchinensis JT12
    |    `--H. giganteus JT12
    `--+--+--Apodini MPA77
       |  `--+--Collocalia JT12
       |     `--+--Hydrochous gigas BKB15
       |        `--Aerodramus BKB15
       |             |--A. papuensis BKB15
       |             `--+--A. vulcanorum BKB15
       |                `--+--+--+--A. brevirostris BKB15
       |                   |  |  `--A. maximus BKB15
       |                   |  `--+--A. terraereginae BKB15 [=A. spodiopygius terraereginae M03]
       |                   |     `--A. whiteheadi BKB15
       |                   `--+--+--A. vanikorensis BKB15
       |                      |  `--+--A. bartschi BKB15 [=A. vanikorensis bartschi FR98]
       |                      |     `--A. sawtelli BKB15
       |                      `--+--A. spodiopygius BKB15
       |                         |    |--A. s. spodiopygius M03
       |                         |    `--A. s. chillagoensis M03
       |                         `--+--A. mearnsi BKB15
       |                            `--+--+--A. elaphrus BKB15
       |                               |  `--A. francicus BKB15
       |                               `--+--A. fuciphagus BKB15
       |                                  `--A. salangana BKB15
       `--+--Neafrapus BKB15
          |    |--N. boehmi JT12
          |    `--N. cassini JT12
          `--+--Rhaphidura BKB15
             |    |--R. leucopygialis JT12
             |    `--R. sabini JT12
             `--Chaetura Stephens 1826 BKB15, CC10
                  |  i. s.: C. baconica Jánossy 1977 M02
                  |         C. brachyura JT12 [incl. C. cinereicauda Cassin 1895 S18]
                  |         C. egregia JT12
                  |         C. fumosa JT12 [=C. cinereiventris fumosa S18]
                  |         C. gigantea FP64
                  |         C. grandidieri S66
                  |         C. martinica JT12
                  |         C. melanopygia FP64
                  |         C. meridionalis JT12
                  |         C. spinicaudus JT12
                  |         C. viridipennis JT12
                  |--C. cinereiventris JT12
                  `--+--+--C. andrei BKB15
                     |  `--C. chapmani Hellmayr 1907 JT12, S18
                     `--+--C. pelagica JT12
                        `--C. vauxi JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FR98] Fritts, T. H., & G. H. Rodda. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: a case history of Guam. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 113–140.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[MPA77] Moss, W. W., P. C. Peterson & W. T. Atyeo. 1977. A multivariate assessment of phenetic relationships within the feather mite family Eustathiidae (Acari). Systematic Zoology 26 (4): 386–409.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

Last updated: 23 August 2019.

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