Icteridae

Western meadowlark Sturnella neglecta, copyright Kevin Cole.


Belongs within: Passeroidea.
Contains: Cacicus, Icterus, Quiscalus.

The Icteridae, sometimes referred to as New World Orioles or New World blackbirds, are a family of small to large passerine birds found in North and South America. Icterids have pointed bills and generally dark, often glossy plumage, often also with brightly-coloured patches (Internet Bird Collection).

<==Icteridae [Icterinae, Icterini]
    |--+--+--Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus JF06
    |  |  `--Dolichonyx Swainson 1827 JF06, B94 [Dolichonychinae]
    |  |       `--D. oryzivorus JF06
    |  `--Sturnella Vieillot 1816 JF06, B94 [incl. Trupialis Bonaparte 1850 B94; Sturnellinae, Trupialinae]
    |       |  i. s.: S. defilippii JT12
    |       |--+--S. bellicosa JT12
    |       |  `--S. militaris JT12 [=Leistes militaris JF06]
    |       `--+--+--S. loyca JT12
    |          |  `--S. superciliaris JT12
    |          `--+--S. magna JT12
    |             `--S. neglecta Audubon 1844 JT12, CC10
    `--+--Cacicus JT12
       `--+--Icterus JT12
          `--+--Amblycercus holosericeus JT12
             `--+--Nesopsar nigerrimus BKB15
                `--+--Dives BKB15
                   |    |--D. atroviolaceus JT12
                   |    |--D. dives JT12
                   |    `--D. warszewiczi JF06
                   `--+--Agelaius Vieillot 1816 BKB15, B94 [Agelaiinae, Aglaiinae]
                      |    |  i. s.: A. assimilis JT12 [=A. phoeniceus assimilis MS55]
                      |    |--+--A. humeralis JF06
                      |    |  `--A. xanthomus JF06
                      |    `--+--A. phoeniceus (Linnaeus 1766) JF06, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      |       `--A. tricolor JF06
                      `--+--Molothrus Swainson 1832 BKB15, B94 [incl. Scaphidura Swainson 1837 B94; Molothrinae]
                         |    |  i. s.: M. armenti JT12
                         |    |--M. rufoaxillaris JF06
                         |    `--+--M. oryzivorus JT12 [=Scaphidura oryzivora JF06]
                         |       `--+--M. aeneus JF06
                         |          `--+--M. ater JF06
                         |             `--M. bonariensis JF06
                         `--+--+--Quiscalus BKB15
                            |  `--Euphagus JT12
                            |       |--E. carolinus JF06
                            |       |--E. cyanocephalus JF06
                            |       `--E. magnirostris FP64
                            `--+--Macroagelaius subalaris BKB15
                               `--+--+--Macroagelaius imthurni BKB15
                                  |  `--+--Gymnomystax BKB15
                                  |     |    |--G. melanicterus SS66
                                  |     |    `--G. mexicanus JF06
                                  |     `--+--Lampropsar tanagrinus BKB15
                                  |        `--Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster JT12
                                  `--+--+--Amblyramphus holosericeus BKB15
                                     |  `--Curaeus JF06
                                     |       |--C. curaeus JF06
                                     |       `--C. forbesi JT12
                                     `--+--Agelasticus BKB15
                                        |    |--A. thilius JT12 [=Agelaius thilius JF06]
                                        |    `--+--A. cyanopus JT12 [=Agelaius cyanopus JF06]
                                        |       `--A. xanthophthalmus JT12 [=Agelaius xanthophtalmus JF06]
                                        `--+--+--Gnorimopsar chopi BKB15
                                           |  `--Chrysomus BKB15
                                           |       |--C. icterocephalus JT12 [=Agelaius icterocephalus JF06]
                                           |       `--C. ruficapillus JT12 [=Agelaius ruficapillus JF06]
                                           `--+--+--Agelaioides badius BKB15 [=Molothrus badius JF06]
                                              |  `--Oreopsar bolivianus JF06
                                              `--+--Xanthopsar flavus BKB15 [=Agelaius flavus JF06]
                                                 `--Pseudoleistes JF06
                                                      |--P. guirahuro JF06
                                                      `--P. virescens JF06

Icteridae incertae sedis:
  Zarhynchus wagleri A61
  Tangavius FP64
    |--T. aeneus FS55
    `--T. armenti FP64
  Cassiculus SS66
    |--C. melanicterus FP64
    `--C. solitarius [incl. C. nigerrimus] SS66
  Ostinops SS66
    |--O. angustifrons SS66
    |--O. atrovirens SS66
    |--O. cristatus SS66
    `--O. yuracarium SS66
  Xanthosomus icterocephalus SS66
  Pezites militaris L81
  Megaquiscalus major S18
    |--M. m. major S18
    `--M. m. macrourus S18

Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus 1766) JF06, CC10 [=Oriolus phoeniceus CC10, A. phaeniceus (l. c.) CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

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