Passeroidea

Greater green leafbird Chloropsis sonnerati zosterops, photographed by Amar-Singh HSS.


Belongs within: Passerida.
Contains: Nectariniidae, Dicaeum, Ploceidae, Estrildidae, Motacillidae, Fringillidae, Cardinalinae, Parulidae, Emberizidae, Icteridae, Thraupidae, Passeridae.

The Passeroidea is a clade of passerine birds recognised by molecular analyses. The core of the Passeroidea is the nine-primaried oscines, a group of passerines characterised by the possession of nine rather than ten primary wing feathers. The nine-primaried oscines also include a large proportion of the granivorous passerines. Also included are basal families such as the Irenidae, Nectariniidae and Promeropidae.

Passeroidea [Tanagridae]
    |--Promeropidae BB05
    |    |--Promerops Brisson 1760 BB05, B94 [incl. Ptiloturus Swainson 1836 B94; Promeropinae, Ptiloturidae]
    |    |    `--*P. cafer B94
    |    `--+--Arcanator orostruthus BB05
    |       `--Modulatrix stictigula BB05
    `--+--+--Nectariniidae BB05
       |  `--Dicaeum BB05
       `--+--Irenidae [Chloropseidae] BB05
          |    |--Irena Horsfield 1821 B94
          |    |    |--I. cyanogaster BB05
          |    |    |    |--I. c. cyanogaster L03
          |    |    |    `--I. c. ellae Steere 1890 L03
          |    |    `--I. puella S02
          |    `--Chloropsis Jardine & Selby 1827 BB05, B94 [incl. Phyllornis Temminck 1829 B94]
          |         |--C. aurifrons S89
          |         |--C. chlorocephala S89
          |         |--C. cochinchinensis BB05 [=Phyllornis cochinchinensis B66]
          |         |    |--C. c. cochinchinensis L03
          |         |    `--C. c. kinabaluensis Sharpe 1887 [incl. C. flavocincta Sharpe 1887] L03
          |         |--C. hardwicki S89
          |         |    |--C. h. hardwicki VP89
          |         |    `--C. h. melliana VP89
          |         |--‘Phyllornis’ jerdoni B66
          |         `--C. sonnerati L03
          |              |--C. s. sonnerati L03
          |              |--C. s. parvirostris Hartert 1838 [=C. zosterops parvirostris] L03
          |              `--C. s. zosterops Vigors 1830 [incl. C. viridis viriditectus Hartert 1902] L03
          `--+--+--+--Peucedramus Henshaw 1875 JF06, B94 [Peucedramidae, Peucedraminae]
             |  |  |    `--P. taeniatus KJL00
             |  |  `--Prunella Vieillot 1816 JF06, B94 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |       |--P. collaris (Scopoli 1769) [=Sturnus collaris] M02
             |  |       |--P. modularis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Motacilla modularis] M02
             |  |       |    |--P. m. modularis R85
             |  |       |    `--P. m. occidentalis (Hartert 1910) R85
             |  |       |--P. montanella WBSJ82
             |  |       |--P. rubida T89
             |  |       `--P. strophiata JF06
             |  `--+--Ploceidae JF06
             |     `--+--Estrildidae JF06
             |        `--+--Anomalospiza Shelley 1901 JF06, B94 [Anomalospizinae]
             |           |    `--A. imberbis JF06
             |           `--Viduinae [Viduidae] B94
             |                |--Steganura paradisea FP64
             |                `--Vidua Cuvier 1817 JF06, B94
             |                     |--+--+--V. fischeri JF06
             |                     |  |  `--V. regia JF06
             |                     |  `--+--V. chalybeata JF06
             |                     |     `--+--V. purpurascens JF06
             |                     |        `--V. raricola JF06
             |                     `--+--V. hypocherina JF06
             |                        `--+--V. macroura JF06
             |                           `--+--V. orientalis JF06
             |                              `--+--V. obtusa JF06
             |                                 `--V. paradisaea JF06
             `--+--+--Motacillidae BB05
                |  `--+--Fringillidae KJL00
                |     `--+--+--Cardinalinae KJL00
                |        |  `--+--+--+--Parulidae JF06
                |        |     |  |  `--Emberizidae JF06
                |        |     |  `--Icteridae JF06
                |        |     `--Thraupidae KJL00
                |        `--+--+--‘Calcarius’ mccownii JF06
                |           |  `--Plectrophenax Stejneger 1882 KJL00, B94 [Plectrophenacinae]
                |           |       |--P. hyperboreus JF06
                |           |       `--P. nivalis SA82
                |           |            |--P. n. nivalis SA82
                |           |            `--P. n. townsendi SA82
                |           `--Calcarius Bechstein 1802 KJL00, B94[Calcariinae]
                |                |--C. lapponicus JF06
                |                `--+--C. ornatus JF06
                |                   `--C. pictus JF06
                `--Passeridae BB05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66] Beavan, R. C. 1866. Extracts from a letter addressed to the Secretary relating his trip to Zwagaben, and discovery of Nemorhaedus sumatrensis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 2-4.

[BB05] Beresford, P., F. K. Barker, P. G. Ryan & T. M. Crowe. 2005. African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): Molecular systematics of several evolutionary ‘enigmas’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 272: 849-858.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[KJL00] Klicka, J., K. P. Johnson & S. M. Lanyon. 2000. New World nine-primaried oscine relationships: Constructing a mitochondrial DNA framework. Auk 117: 321-336.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX. – Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369-438.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds – a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537-543.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130-140.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

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