Female Baetis subimago, copyright Jason Neuswanger.

Belongs within: Panephemeroptera.
Contains: Heptageniomorpha, Siphlonuroidea.

The Pisciformia are a group of mayflies characterised by nymphs with a fish-like body form and swimming mode. They include the infraorder Baetomorpha, members of which have fore wings with the tornal angle distad to CuP and nymphal maxillae with three dentisetae (Kluge & Sinitshenkova 2002). The Epeoromimidae are known from the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous from large-gilled nymphs only.

See also: Everything you knew about mayflies is wrong.

    |--+--+--Heptageniomorpha GE05
    |  |  `--Aenigmephemera RJ93 [Aenigmephemeridae GE05]
    |  |       `--A. demoulini RJ93
    |  `--Epeoromimidae [Epeoromididae] GE05
    |       |--Foliomimus S02a
    |       `--Epeoromimus Tshernova 1969 S02b
    |            |--E. cretaceous Sinitshenkova 1976 S02b
    |            |--E. infractus Sinitshenkova 1989 S02b
    |            |--E. kazlauskasi KS02
    |            `--E. umbratus Sinitshenkova 2002 S02b
    `--Baetomorpha [Tridentiseta] KS02
         |--Siphlonuroidea GE05
         `--Baetoidea [Tetramerotarsata] KS02
              |  i. s.: Oniscigastridae [Oniscigastrini] PC91
              |           |--Oniscigaster distans PC66
              |           `--Tasmanophlebia PC91
              |                |--T. lacuscoerulei PC91
              |                |--T. lacustris PC91
              |                `--T. nigrescens PC91
              |         Ameletopsidae [Ameletopsinae, Ameletopsini] PC91
              |           |--Ameletopsis perscitus PC66
              |           |--Mirawara aapta PC91
              |           |--Chaquihua D68
              |           `--Balticophlebia Demoulin 1968 D68
              |                `--*B. hennigi Demoulin 1968 D68
              |--Siphlaenigma [Siphlaenigmatidae] KS02
              |    `--S. janae RD77
              `--Liberevenata KS02
                   |  i. s.: Palaeocloeon KS02
                   `--Baetidae [Baetinae, Turbanoculata] KS02
                        |--Centroptilum rotundum Takahashi 1929 PC91, TYM08
                        |--Bungona narilla PC91
                        |--Pseudocloeon PC91
                        |--Callibaetis ferrugineus RD77, MG06
                        |--Cloeon KS02
                        |    |--C. dipterum A99
                        |    |--C. emmavillensis Riek 1954 F71
                        |    |--C. fluviatile PC91
                        |    |--C. inscriptum PC91
                        |    |--‘Cloe’ litura F89
                        |    `--‘Cloe’ translucida B89
                        |--Baetis PC91
                        |    |--B. amoenus Takahashi 1931 [=Boetis (l. c.) amoenus] TYM08
                        |    |--B. fluminum F89
                        |    |--B. gigantea RJ93
                        |    |--B. lutheri M86
                        |    |--B. magnus Takahashi 1931 TYM08
                        |    |--B. rhodani RD77
                        |    |--B. soror PC91
                        |    |--B. vardarensis Ikonomov 1962 M86
                        |    `--B. venosa F89
                        |--Cloeodes G01
                        |    |--C. bicoloratus Gattolliat 2001 G01
                        |    |--C. freitagae Gattolliat 2001 G01
                        |    |--C. portabilis G01
                        |    `--C. pseudoglodius Gattolliat 2001 G01
                        |--Xyrodromeus G01
                        |--Rheoptilum G01
                        |--Dabulamanzia gladius G01
                        `--Baetodes Needham & Murphy 1924 CA72
                             |--*B. serratus Needham & Murphy 1924 CA72
                             |--B. adustus Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             |--B. andamagensis Mayo 1972 M72
                             |--B. bellus Mayo 1972 M72
                             |--B. caritus Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             |--B. chilloni Mayo 1972 M72
                             |--B. deficiens Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             |--B. fortinensis Mayo 1972 M72
                             |--B. fuscipes Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             |--B. inermis Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             |--B. itatiayanus Demoulin 1955 CA72
                             |--B. levis Mayo 1968 CA72
                             |--B. noventus Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             |--B. obesus Mayo 1972 M72
                             |--B. pallidus Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             |--B. pictus Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             |--B. sancticatarinae Mayo 1972 M72
                             |--B. solus Mayo 1972 M72
                             |--B. spinae Mayo 1968 CA72
                             |--B. spinifer Traver 1943 [=B. spiniferum] M72
                             |--B. traverae Mayo 1972 M72
                             |--B. tritus Cohen & Allen 1972 CA72
                             `--B. veracrusensis Mayo 1972 M72

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[CA72] Cohen, S. D., & R. K. Allen. 1972. New species of Baetodes from Mexico and Central America (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 123–135.

[D68] Demoulin, G. 1968. Deuxième contribution à la connaissance des ephéméroptères de l'ambre oligocène de la Baltique. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift (N. F.) 15 (1–3): 233–276.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F89] Fritze, A. 1889. Ueber den Darmkanal der Ephemeriden. Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Freiburg I. B. 4: 59–82, pls 2–3.

[G01] Gattolliat, J.-L. 2001. The genus Cloeodes (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in Madagascar. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 108 (2): 387–402.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KS02] Kluge, N. Yu., & N. D. Sinitshenkova. 2002. Order Ephemerida Latreille, 1810. The true mayflies (=Ephemeroptera Hyatt et Arms, 1891 (s. l.); =Euephemeroptera Kluge, 2000. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 89–97. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[M86] Marten, M. 1986. Drei für Deutschland neue und weitere, selten gefundene Eintagsfliegen aus der Fulda (Insecta, Ephemeroptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 169–173.

[M72] Mayo, V. K. 1972. New species of the genus Baetodes (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (4): 226–241.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[PC91] Peters, W. L., & I. C. Campbell. 1991. Ephemeroptera (mayflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 279–293. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02a] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002a. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02b] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002b. New late Mesozoic mayflies from the Shar-Teeg locality, Mongolia (Insecta, Ephemerida=Ephemeroptera). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (3): 43–48 (translated: Paleontological Journal 36 (3): 270–276).

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

Last updated: 31 May 2022.

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