Forewing of Oedischia williamsoni, from here.

Belongs within: Archaeorthoptera.
Contains: Bintoniellidae, Geraridae, Ensifera, Panelcanida, Pantcholmanvissiida.

The Orthoptera include the grasshoppers and allies, insects commonly characterised by the enlargement and modification of the hindlimbs for jumping. Many Orthoptera also have the forewings modified for noise production, though such structures are absent in basal fossil members of the clade and stridulatory structures and associated tympana have arisen independently in derived subgroups.

The earliest orthopterans (previously mostly classified as the paraphyletic 'Oedischioidea') are known from the Late Carboniferous, with the group becoming diverse in the Early Permian (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002). The Late Carboniferous (Gzhelian) Oedischia williamsoni was found by Béthoux & Nel (2002) to form the sister taxon of all other Orthoptera together with the Geraridae; O. williamsoni already has well-developed jumping legs, suggesting that this feature was ancestral for the Orthoptera as a whole. The remaining 'oedischioids' were placed by Béthoux & Nel (2002) in the stem group to the modern Caelifera (short-horned grasshoppers) albeit with low support from largely homoplasic synapomorphies for basal members of this clade. Mesoedischia is a genus known from the Triassic of Kyrgyzstan, in which males have the posterior margin of the forewings bowed anteriorly at mid-length, and bearing a strong supplementary longitudinal vein between veins 1A and 2A. The Permian Mezenoedischiinae area have a series of bowed sigmoidal cross-veins between RA and RP, the area between MP and CuA+CuPaα narrower than the area between MP and MA/MA2 (at least in its basal two thirds), and CuA short basal of its fusion with CuPaα (Béthoux & Nel 2002).

Characters (from Béthoux & Nel 2002): Forewing with vein MA usually differentiated into MA1 and MA2; MA1 or MA generally fused with RP; MP simple, exceptionally with few distal branches, strongly concave; CuPaβ usually simple; CuPb simple; vein 1A simple. Metathoracic legs with broadened femora.

Orthoptera (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Geraridae BN02
    |  `--Oedischia [Oedischiinae] BN02
    |       `--O. williamsoni Brongniart 1885 BN02
    `--+--Ensifera BN02
       `--+--Mesoedischia Sharov 1968 BN02, BNL02 [Mesoedischiidae, Mesoedischiinae]
          |    |--M. kirgizica Gorokhov 1987 RJ93
          |    |--M. madygenia Sharov 1968 BN02
          |    `--M. obliqua Gorokhov 1987 BN02
          `--+--+--Suksunoedischia breviuscula Gorokhov 1987 BN02
             |  `--+--Sylvoedischia Sharov 1968 BN02
             |     |    |--S. crassa Gorokhov 1987 BN02
             |     |    `--S. uralica Sharov 1968 BN02
             |     `--+--Sojanoedischia sharovi Gorokhov 1987 BN02
             |        `--Stenoedischia sylvensis Gorokhov 1987 BN02
             `--+--Tshekardoedischia ancestralis Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                `--+--Panelcanida BN02
                   `--+--Paroedischia BN02 [Pruvostitidae RJ93, Tettavidae]
                      |    `--P. recta Carpenter 1966 BN02
                      `--+--+--Anhomalophlebia couloni Handlirsch 1919 BN02
                         |  `--Kansasoedischia maculata BN02
                         `--+--Elcanoedischia Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                            |    |--E. major Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                            |    `--E. minor Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                            `--+--Metoedischia Martynov 1928 BN02, BNL02
                               |    `--M. magnifica Martynov 1928 BN02
                               `--+--Pantcholmanvissiida BN02
                                  `--+--Sharovoedischia aberrans (Sharov 1968) BN02
                                     `--Mezenoedischiinae BN02
                                          |--Petrelcana elongata Carpenter 1966 BN02
                                          `--+--Uraloedischia permiensis Sharov 1968 BN02
                                             `--+--Iasvia reticulata Zalessky 1934 BN02
                                                `--Mezenoedischia Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                                                     |--M. maculosa Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                                                     `--M. martynovi Gorokhov 1987 BN02

Orthoptera incertae sedis:
  Barytettix OF01
  Agriacris trilineata FG01
  Ligurotettix coquilleti F01a
  Macrogryllus ephippium F01b
  Thueringoedischiidae GR02
  Phasmomimidae [Phasmomimoidea] GR02
    |--Paraphasmomima sharovi Zherikhin 1985 RJ93
    `--Promastacoides albertae RJ93
  Hesperotettix viridis SS96
  Circotettix verruculatus D37
  Myrmeleotettix maculatus GT00, TS04
  Pharmacus montanus O81
  Allonemobius socius R96
  Dianemobius fascipes R96
  Proparagryllacrididae GR02
    |--Gryllacrimima perfecta GR02
    `--Proparagryllacris crassifemur Riek 1956 F71
  Afroedischia GR02
  Acridella nasuta D95
  Forficesila E12
    |--F. mauritanica Lucas 1846 E12
    `--F. vicina Lucas 1846 E12
  Sphaerium mauritanicum Lucas 1846 E12
  Dictyophorus spumans I92
  Acripela reticulata I92
  Barbitistes constrictus K08
  Euthystira brachyptera K09
  Tropidostethus Philippi 1863 S65
  Locustana pardalina CS77
  Hyperomala virescens Serville in Boisduval 1835 B35
  Endecous peruassuensis Bolfarini & Bichuette 2015 P-GC17
  Bartitistes fischeri F92
  Aeropedellus variegatus F92
  Chrotogonius taranicus F92
  Epacromius F92
    |--E. coerulipes F92
    `--E. tergestinus F92
  Pyrgodera armata F92
  Heteracris F92
    |--H. littoralis PM09
    `--H. pterosticha F92
  Melanotmethis fuscipennis F92
  Mioscirtus wagneri F92
  Notostaurus albicornis F92
  Mesasippus kozhevnikovi F92
  Poecilocerus pictus F92
  Chrysochraon dispar F92
  Condracris rosea C96
  Mesogramma [Mesogrammatidae] RJ93
    `--M. divaricata Hong 1985 RJ93
  Bintoniellidae RJ93
  Xenogryllacris reductus RJ93
  Jurassobatea gryllacroides RJ93
  Kamiidae RJ93
  Promastacidae RJ93
  Triassomanteidae [Triassomantidae] RJ93
    |--Triassomanteodes madygenicus RJ93
    `--Orichalcum ornatum Whalley 1985 RJ93
  Vitimiidae RJ93
    |--Vitimia Sharov 1968 BN02
    `--Deinovitimia insoluta Gorokhov 1989 RJ93
  Acacus Brunner 1907 K18
  Cranae Stål 1878 K18
  Eurycorypha varia R13
  Myrmegryllus dipterus R13
  Phylloscirtus macilentus R13
  Enyaliopsis R13
    |--E. durandi R13
    `--E. petersi R13
  Caloptenus italicus R13
  Stauronotus maroccanus R13
  Scudderia furcata SBM11
  Warramba virgo PN92
  Pristes tuberosus B00
  Platyphyllum regimbarti B00

Orthoptera [Acridii, Anelcanidae, Euorthoptera, Grillides, Grylliae, Gryllina, Oedischiidae, Oedischioidea, Oedischiidea, Parelcanidae, Saltatoria]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F01a] Field, L. H. 2001a. Aggression behaviour in New Zealand tree wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 333–349. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GT00] Gorlov, I. P., & N. Tsurusaki. 2000. Morphology and meiotic/mitotic behavior of B chromosomes in a Japanese harvestman, Metagagrella tenuipes (Arachnida: Opiliones): no evidence for B accumulation mechanisms. Zoological Science 17: 349–355.

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[S65] Smith, J. L. B. 1965. Fishes of the family Atherinidae of the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean with a new freshwater genus and species from Madagascar. Ichthyological Bulletin 31: 601–632.

[SBM11] Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg & D. W. Martin (eds) 2011. Biology 9th ed. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

[TS04] Tsurusaki, N., & T. Shimada. 2004. Geographic and seasonal variations of the number of B chromosomes and external morphology in Psathyropus tenuipes (Arachnida: Opiliones). Cytogenetic and Genome Research 106: 365–375.

Last updated: 29 December 2021.

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