Forewing of Oedischia williamsoni, from here.

Belongs within: Archaeorthoptera.
Contains: Geraridae, Ensifera, Panelcanida, Pantcholmanvissiida.

The Orthoptera include the grasshoppers and allies, insects commonly characterised by the enlargement and modification of the hindlimbs for jumping. Many Orthoptera also have the forewings modified for noise production, though such structures are absent in basal fossil members of the clade and stridulatory structures and associated tympana have arisen independently in derived subgroups.

The earliest orthopterans (previously mostly classified as the paraphyletic 'Oedischioidea') are known from the Late Carboniferous, with the group becoming diverse in the Early Permian (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002). The Late Carboniferous (Gzhelian) Oedischia williamsoni was found by Béthoux & Nel (2002) to form the sister taxon of all other Orthoptera together with the Geraridae; O. williamsoni already has well-developed jumping legs, suggesting that this feature was ancestral for the Orthoptera as a whole. The remaining 'oedischioids' were placed by Béthoux & Nel (2002) in the stem group to the modern Caelifera (short-horned grasshoppers) albeit with low support from largely homoplasic synapomorphies for basal members of this clade. Mesoedischia is a genus known from the Triassic of Kyrgyzstan, in which males have the posterior margin of the forewings bowed anteriorly at mid-length, and bearing a strong supplementary longitudinal vein between veins 1A and 2A (Béthoux & Nel 2002).

Characters (from Béthoux & Nel 2002): Forewing with vein MA usually differentiated into MA1 and MA2; MA1 or MA generally fused with RP; MP simple, exceptionally with few distal branches, strongly concave; CuPaβ usually simple; CuPb simple; vein 1A simple. Metathoracic legs with broadened femora.

Orthoptera [Euorthoptera, Grylliae, Gryllina, Oedischiidae, Oedischioidea, Oedischiidea, Saltatoria]
    |--+--Geraridae BN02
    |  `--Oedischia [Oedischiinae] BN02
    |       `--O. williamsoni Brongniart 1885 BN02
    `--+--Ensifera BN02
       `--+--Mesoedischia Sharov 1968 BN02, BNL02 [Mesoedischiidae, Mesoedischiinae]
          |    |--M. madygenia Sharov 1968 BN02
          |    `--M. obliqua Gorokhov 1987 BN02
          `--+--+--Suksunoedischia breviuscula Gorokhov 1987 BN02
             |  `--+--Sylvoedischia Sharov 1968 BN02
             |     |    |--S. crassa Gorokhov 1987 BN02
             |     |    `--S. uralica Sharov 1968 BN02
             |     `--+--Sojanoedischia sharovi Gorokhov 1987 BN02
             |        `--Stenoedischia sylvensis Gorokhov 1987 BN02
             `--+--Tshekardoedischia ancestralis Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                `--+--Panelcanida BN02
                   `--+--Paroedischia recta Carpenter 1966 BN02
                      `--+--+--Anhomalophlebia couloni Handlirsch 1919 BN02
                         |  `--Kansasoedischia maculata BN02
                         `--+--Elcanoedischia Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                            |    |--E. major Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                            |    `--E. minor Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                            `--+--Metoedischia Martynov 1928 BN02, BNL02
                               |    `--M. magnifica Martynov 1928 BN02
                               `--+--Pantcholmanvissiida BN02
                                  `--+--Sharovoedischia aberrans (Sharov 1968) BN02
                                     `--Mezenoedischiinae BN02
                                          |--Petrelcana elongata Carpenter 1966 BN02
                                          `--+--Uraloedischia permiensis Sharov 1968 BN02
                                             `--+--Iasvia reticulata Zalessky 1934 BN02
                                                `--Mezenoedischia Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                                                     |--M. maculosa Gorokhov 1987 BN02
                                                     `--M. martynovi Gorokhov 1987 BN02

Orthoptera incertae sedis:
  Barytettix OF01
  Agriacris trilineata FG01
  Ligurotettix coquilleti F01a
  Macrogryllus ephippium F01b
  Thueringoedischiidae GR02
  Phasmomimidae [Phasmomimoidea] GR02
  Hesperotettix viridis SS96
  Circotettix verruculatus D37
  Myrmeleotettix maculatus GT00, TS04
  Pharmacus montanus O81
  Allonemobius socius R96
  Dianemobius fascipes R96
  Pruvostitidae GR02
  Proparagryllacrididae GR02
    |--Gryllacrimima perfecta GR02
    `--Proparagryllacris crassifemur Riek 1956 F71
  Afroedischia GR02
  Gryllulus domesticus K91
  Acridella nasuta D95
  Forficesila E12
    |--F. mauritanica Lucas 1847 E12
    `--F. vicina Lucas 1847 E12
  Sphaerium mauritanicum Lucas 1847 E12
  Dictyophorus spumans I92
  Acropela reticulata I92
  Barbitistes constrictus K08
  Euthystira brachyptera K09
  Tropidostethus Philippi 1863 S65
  Parapleurus alliaeus BM76
  Stauroderus schmidti BM76
  Locustana pardalina CS77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1–88.

[BNL02] Béthoux, O., A. Nel, J. Lapeyrie, G. Gand & J. Galtier. 2002. Raphogla rubra gen. n., sp. n., the oldest representative of the clade of modern Ensifera (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidea, Gryllidea). European Journal of Entomology 99: 111–116.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D95] Damerdji, A. 1995. Bio-écologie du peuplement des orthoptères de la région de Ghazaouet (Tlemcen, Algérie). Mésogée 54: 73–80.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F01a] Field, L. H. 2001a. Aggression behaviour in New Zealand tree wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 333–349. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[F01b] Field, L. H. 2001b. Sensory physiology. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 429–458. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[FG01] Field, L. H., & S. Glasgow. 2001. Defence behaviour. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 297–316. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GT00] Gorlov, I. P., & N. Tsurusaki. 2000. Morphology and meiotic/mitotic behavior of B chromosomes in a Japanese harvestman, Metagagrella tenuipes (Arachnida: Opiliones): no evidence for B accumulation mechanisms. Zoological Science 17: 349–355.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K08] Köhler, G. 2008. Populationsstudien aus Gemeinen Grashüpfer, Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt), entlang eines Höhengradienten im Mittleren Erzgebirge. Mauritiana 20 (2): 349–370.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[K91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199–204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[OF01] O’Brien, B., & L. H. Field. 2001. Morphology and anatomy of New Zealand wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 127–162. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[O81] O'Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3–35.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965–1974.

[S65] Smith, J. L. B. 1965. Fishes of the family Atherinidae of the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean with a new freshwater genus and species from Madagascar. Ichthyological Bulletin 31: 601–632.

[TS04] Tsurusaki, N., & T. Shimada. 2004. Geographic and seasonal variations of the number of B chromosomes and external morphology in Psathyropus tenuipes (Arachnida: Opiliones). Cytogenetic and Genome Research 106: 365–375.

Last updated: 23 October 2017.

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