Bumastus ioxus, copyright American Museum of Natural History.

Belongs within: Trilobita.
Contains: Cyclolorenzella, Lisaniidae, Onchonotellus, Leiostegiacea, Conocoryphidae, Shumardiidae, Illaenuridae, Olenacea, Phacopida, Asaphacea, Ceratopygidae, Cyclopygidae, Dikelocephalacea, Ptychoparioidea, Corynexochida.

The Ptychopariida have been recognised as a group of trilobites known from the Middle Cambrian to the Late Ordovician. However, this group is probably paraphyletic, with a number of later trilobite groups, some surviving into the Devonian, derived from within the ptychopariidans (Prothero 1998).

Characters (from Prothero 1998, for Ptychopariida sensu stricto): Glabella simple, tapering anteriorly, with straight glabellar furrows; large area in front of glabella. Usually with many thoracic segments and small pygidium.

<==Ptychopariida [Ptychopariina]
    |--+--Olenacea P98
    |  `--Phacopida P98
    `--+--Calymenina [Calymenacea] P98
       |    |  i. s.: Flexicalymene meeki P98
       |    |         Calymene FO99
       |    |           |--C. duni Etheridge & Mitchell 1917 F71
       |    |           `--C. polgari FO99
       |    `--Pharostomatinae SS84
       |--Illaenida [Illaenina] P98
       |    |--Illaenus johnstoni Etheridge 1896 F71
       |    |--Panderia J79
       |    |--Bumastus P98
       |    |    |--B. insignis P98
       |    |    `--B. ioxus EB01
       |    `--Harpillaenus FO99
       |--Asaphida [Asaphina] P98
       |    |  i. s.: Isotelus P98
       |    |           |--I. gigas P98
       |    |           `--I. parvirugosus FO99
       |    |         Anataphrus J79
       |    |         Nileidae FO99
       |    |           |--Nileus affinis FO99
       |    |           `--Symphysurus FO99
       |    |         Ogygyinus armoricanus FO99
       |    |--Asaphacea S80
       |    |--Ceratopygacea S80
       |    |    |  i. s.: Charchaqia SS84
       |    |    `--Ceratopygidae S80
       |    |--Cyclopygidae O02
       |    `--Dikelocephalacea P98
       `--+--Ptychoparioidea P98
          `--Corynexochida P98

Ptychopariida incertae sedis:
  Cyclolorenzella HLC03
  Lisaniidae HLC03
  Onchonotinidae S80
    |--Onchonotina Lu 1961 S80
    `--Onchonotus Raymond 1924 S80
  Quebecaspis S80
  Taenicephalus S80
    |--T. megalops Kobayashi 1938 S80
    `--T. polyaricus Rosova 1963 S80
  Guizhoucephalina Chien 1961 S80
    `--*G. longispina Chien 1961 S80
  Catillicephalidae [Catillicephalacea] SS84
    |--Onchonotellus SS84
    |--Pseudopetigurus Prantl & Přibyl 1950 SS84
    `--Parahystricurus Ross 1951 SS84
  Leiostegiacea S80
  Elrathia kingi P98
  Triarthrus P98
    |--T. becki H04
    `--T. eatoni M79
  Conocoryphacea SS84
    |--Conocoryphidae W77
    `--Shumardiidae SS84
  Macropyginae [Macropygidae, Remopleurididacea, Remopleurididae] SS84
    |--Macropyge Stubblefield 1927 [incl. Gladiatoria Hupé 1955, Lichapyge Callaway 1877] SS84
    |    |--*M. chermi Stubblefield 1927 SS84
    |    |--M. ambolti (Troedsson 1937) [=Haniwa ambolti] SS84
    |    |--M. brevicaudata Wolfart 1970 SS84
    |    |--M. elegansis Fedjanina in Sinyakov & Fedjanina 1962 SS84
    |    |--M. gladiator Ross 1951 [=*Gladiatoria gladiator] SS84
    |    |--M. improcera Lisogor 1977 SS84
    |    |--M. kozhuchensis (Petrunina 1973) [=Niobella kozhuchensis] SS84
    |    |--‘Lichapyge’ problematica R27
    |    |--M. sica Sdzuy 1955 SS84
    |    `--M. taurina Dean in Özgül, Metin & Dean 1972 SS84
    |--Promacropyge Lu 1965 SS84
    `--Aksapyge Lisogor 1977 SS84
  Illaenuridae SS84
  Koldinia Walcott & Resser 1924 SS84
  Wanwanaspis Kobayashi 1966 SS84
  Wanwanoglobus Kobayashi 1966 SS84
  Koldiniella Lermontova 1940 SS84
    `--K. mitella SS84
  Plethopeltidae SS84
    |--Plethopeltis arbucklensis LM05
    |--Stenopilus latus SS84, LM05
    |--Leiocoryphe transversa Rasetti 1945 SS84
    `--Plethometopus [Plethometopidae] SS84
         `--P. obtusus LM05
  Genevieviella neunia Lochman 1936 SS84
  Raashellina paula Rozova 1963 SS84
  Coosella altaica Ivshin in Khalfin 1960 SS84
  Platydiamesus depressus SS84

Nomina nuda: Macropyge composita Petrunina 1966 SS84
             Macropyge kasica Petrunina 1966 SS84
             Macropyge lanceolata Petrunina 1966 SS84
             Macropyge poletaevae Petrunina 1966 SS84
             Macropyge prisca Petrunina 1966 SS84
             Macropyge tabularis Petrunina 1966 SS84

*Type species of generic name indicated


[EB01] Eckert, J. D., & C. E. Brett. 2001. Early Silurian (Llandovery) crinoids from the Lower Clinton Group, western New York State. Bulletins of American Paleontology 360: 1–88.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[FO99] Fortey, R. A. & R. M. Owens. 1999. Feeding habits in trilobites. Palaeontology 42 (3): 429–465.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HLC03] Hong, P. S., J. G. Lee & D. K. Choi. 2003. Trilobites from the Lejopyge armata zone (upper Middle Cambrian) of the Machari Formation, Yongwol Group, Korea. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 895–907.

[J79] Jaanusson, V. 1979. Ordovician. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A136–A166. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[LM05] Lehnert, O., J. F. Miller, S. A. Leslie, J. E. Repetski & R. L. Ethington. 2005. Cambro-Ordovician sea-level fluctuations and sequence boundaries: the missing record and the evolution of new taxa. Special Papers in Palaeontology 73: 117–134.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[O02] Owens, R. M. 2002. Cyclopygid trilobites from the Ordovician Builth-Llandrindod Inlier, central Wales. Palaeontology 45 (3): 469–485.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[R27] Reed, F. R. C. 1927. New trilobites from the Ordovician beds of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 310–314.

[S80] Shergold, J. H. 1980. Late Cambrian trilobites from the Chatsworth Limestone, western Queensland. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics—Bulletin 186: 1–111.

[SS84] Shergold, J. H., & K. Sdzuy. 1984. Cambrian and early Tremadocian trilobites from Sultan Dağ, central Turkey. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 65 (1–3): 51–135.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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