Betulaceae

Stand of silver birch Betula pendula, copyright Percita.


Belongs within: Rosidae.

The Betulaceae, birches and related taxa, is a group of deciduous trees and shrubs found mostly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

Characters (from Flora of North America): Trees and shrubs, deciduous. Winter buds stipitate or sessile, with either 2--3 valvate scales (stipules) or few to many imbricate scales (or occasionally naked); terminal bud absent. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged, 2--3-ranked, simple; stipules deciduous, distinct; petioles present. Leaf blade sometimes lobed, pinnately veined, margins toothed, serrate to nearly entire; surfaces glabrous to tomentose, abaxially often with resinous glands. Inflorescences unisexual; staminate catkins pendulous, elongate, cylindric, conspicuously bracteate, consisting of crowded, reduced, 1--3-flowered clusters; pistillate inflorescences either of erect to pendulous bracteate catkins, or of compact 2--3-flowered clusters subtended by leafy involucres; bracts often nearly foliaceous or woody in infructescences. Staminate flowers bracteate; stamens (1--)4--6; anthers 2-locular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, pollen sacs often ± distinct; pistillode sometimes present. Pistillate flowers small, highly reduced; pistil 1, 2(--3)-carpellate; ovary inferior, usually 2-locular proximally, 1-locular distally; placentation axile; ovules 1--2 per locule, pendulous; styles 2, distinct or nearly so; stigmas dry; staminodes usually absent. Fruits nuts, nutlets, or 2-winged samaras, 1-seeded, without multibracteate cupule, often subtended or enclosed by foliaceous hull developed from 2--3 bracts; seed coat membranous; endosperm present, thin at maturity; embryo straight, as long as seed; cotyledons flat or greatly thickened, oily.

<==Betulaceae [Betulanae, Betuloideae]
    |--Ostryopsis YY22
    |--Ostrya YY22
    |    |--O. carpinifolia SM08
    |    `--O. virginiana H03
    |--Carpinus SP04
    |    |--C. betulus SM08 [incl. C. caucasica SP04]
    |    |--C. orientalis G98
    |    `--C. tschonoskii [incl. C. laxiflora] LO98
    |--Alnus WM09
    |    |--A. glutinosa WM09
    |    |--A. incana HP-W05
    |    |--A. japonica [=A. maritima var. japonica] LO98
    |    |--A. maccoyi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    |--A. nepalensis D07
    |    |--A. rubra PHK96
    |    |--A. rugosa JVHN90
    |    |--A. sinuata WM09
    |    |--A. tenuifolia ZB01
    |    `--A. viridis HP-W05
    `--Betula WB03
         |--B. alleghaniensis BFD01
         |--B. ermanii WB03
         |--B. lenta CS05
         |--B. maximowicziana LO98
         |--B. nana K02
         |--B. nigra CB06
         |--B. occidentalis Z83
         |--B. papyrifera JVHN90
         |--B. pendula BS01
         |--B. platyphylla LO98
         |    |--B. p. var. platyphylla LO98
         |    `--B. p. var. japonica [incl. B. alba] LO98
         |--B. populifolia JVHN90
         |--B. pubescens W01
         `--B. utilis O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS01] Bannister, P., & G. L. Strong. 2001. The distribution and population structure of the temperate mistletoe Ileostylus micranthus in the Northern Cemetery, Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 39: 225-233.

[BFD01] Bowman, J., G. J. Forbes & T. G. Dilworth. 2001. The spatial component of variation in small-mammal abundance measured at three scales. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 137-144.

[CB06] Christopher, C. C., & G. W. Barrett. 2006. Coexistence of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) in a southeastern forest. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 102-107.

[CS05] Connors, M. J., E. M. Schauber, A. Forbes, C. G. Jones, B. J. Goodwin & R. S. Ostfeld. 2005. Use of track plates to quantify predation risk at small spatial scales. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 991-996.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[G98] Gruber, J. 1998. Beiträge zur Systematik der Gattung Dicranolasma (Arachnida: Opiliones, Dicranolasmatidae). I. Dicranolasma thracium Staręga und verwandte Formen aus Südosteuropa und Südwestasien. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien. Serie B. Botanik und Zoologie 100: 489-537.

[H03] Healy, R. A. 2003. Mattirolomyces tiffanyae, a new truffle from Iowa, with ultrastructural evidence for its classification in the Pezizaceae. Mycologia 95 (4): 765-772.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215-231.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173-180.

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262-267.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[SP04] Schneeweiss, G. M., T. Palomeque, A. l. E. Colwell & H. Weiss-Schneeweiss. 2004. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 439-448.

[SM08] Schönhofer, A. L., & J. Martens. 2008. Revision of the genus Trogulus Latreille: the Trogulus coriziformis species-group of the western Mediterranean (Opiliones: Trogulidae). Invertebrate Systematics 22: 523-554.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[WB03] Wang, Q.-M., F.-Y. Bai, J.-H. Zhao & J.-H. Jia. 2003. Bensingtonia changbaiensis sp. nov. and Bensingtonia sorbi sp. nov., novel ballistoconidium-forming yeast species from plant leaves. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2085-2089.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: Features facilitating coexistence. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 121-135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[ZB01] Zhang, N., & M. Blackwell. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of dogwood anthracnose fungus (Discula destructiva) and the Diaporthales. Mycologia 93 (2): 355-365.

[Z83] Zink, R. M. 1983. Evolutionary and systematic significance of temporal variation in the fox sparrow. Systematic Zoology 32 (3): 223-238.

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