Macrogyrus striolatus, copyright Australian Museum.

Belongs within: Adephaga.

The Gyrinidae, whirligig beetles, are aquatic beetles that swim using paddle-like mid and hind legs, and have the eyes separated into dorsal and ventral sections by a bridge of cuticle. Most living species are included in the subfamily Gyrininae except Spanglerogyrus albiventris of eastern North America, which has the dorsal and ventral sections of the eye less widely separated than Gyrininae, and has meso- and metatibiae that are elongated well past their articulation with the tarsi (Roughley 2001).

Characters (from Beutel et al. 2013): Antenna with pedicellus ear-shaped, with fring of sensory hairs; pronoto-elytral angle absent; mesoventrite flat and extensive, without hexagonal groove and anterolateral grooves; mesocoxae triangular; metacoxal plates absent; mid and hind legs strongly shortened, broad and paddle-like. Larva with distinct fossa maxillaris, intramaxillary movability present, maxillary palp with two antagonistic muscles.

<==Gyrinidae [Gyrinoidea]
    |  i. s.: Cretotortor S02
    |         Mesogyrus P02
    |           |--M. antiquus P02
    |           `--M. striatus S02
    |         Anagyrinus GE05
    |         Angarogyrus GE05
    |--Triadogyrus sternalis Ponomarenko 1977 BW13
    |--Spanglerogyrus Folkerts 1979 [Spanglerogyrinae] R01
    |    `--S. albiventris LM87
    `--+--Mesodineutes amurensis Ponomarenko 1977 BW13
       `--Gyrininae LM87
            |--+--Gyrinini LM87
            |  |    |--Aulonogyrus Régimbart 1883 LM87
            |  |    |    |--*A. concinnus (Klug 1834) [=Gyrinus concinnus] LM87
            |  |    |    |--A. striatus RB02
            |  |    |    `--A. strigosus (Fabricius 1801) [=Gyrinus strigosus] LM87
            |  |    `--Gyrinus Geoffroy 1762 [incl. Gyrinulus Zaitzev 1907, Oreogyrinus Ochs 1935] R01
            |  |         |  i. s.: G. colymbus C01
            |  |         |         G. marinus C01
            |  |         |         G. minutus C01
            |  |         |         G. ovatus Aubé & Régimbart 1883 R89
            |  |         |         G. striatus [incl. G. capensis] B35
            |  |         `--G. (Gyrinus) LM87
            |  |              |--*G. (G.) natator (Linnaeus 1758) [=Dytiscus natator] LM87
            |  |              `--G. (G.) convexiusculus Macleay 1871 (see below for synonymy) LM87
            |  `--Orectochilini R01
            |       |--Orectochilus villosus BW13, RB02
            |       `--Gyretes Brullé 1834 R01
            |            |--G. dorsalis Brullé & Régimbart 1883 R89
            |            `--G. nitidulus Lab. & Régimbart 1883 R89
            `--+--Andogyrus ellipticus RB02
               `--Enhydrini R01
                    |--Enhydrus M86
                    |    |--E. albertisi M86
                    |    `--E. froggatti Macleay 1886 M86
                    |--Dineutus MacLeay 1825 MW15, R01 [=Dineutes Aubé 1838 LM87; incl. Cyclinus Kirby 1837 R01]
                    |    |  i. s.: D. americanus BB68
                    |    |         D. nigrior R01
                    |    |         D. sublineatus (Chevrolat 1833) B14
                    |    |--*D. (Dineutus) politus Macleay 1825 LM87
                    |    |--D. (Cyclous Ochs 1926) LM87
                    |    |    `--D. (*C.) australis (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) LM87
                    |    `--D. (Spinosodineutes Hatch 1925) LM87
                    |         |--D. (*S.) spinosus (Fabricius 1781) [=Gyrinus spinosus] LM87
                    |         `--D. (S.) neohollandicus Ochs 1926 [=D. (Gyrinodineutus) neohollandicus] LM87
                    `--Macrogyrus Régimbart 1883 LM87
                         |--*M. (Macrogyrus) howittii (Clark 1864) [=Enhydrus howittii] LM87
                         |--M. (Australogyrus Ochs 1949) LM87
                         |    |--M. (*A.) oblongus (Boisduval 1835) [=Gyrinus oblongus] LM87
                         |    |    |--M. o. oblongus LM87
                         |    |    |--M. o. latior (Clark 1864) [=Enhydrus latior] LM87
                         |    |    `--M. o. opacior Blackburn 1901 LM87
                         |    |--M. (A.) rivularis (Clark 1864) (see below for synonymy) LM87
                         |    `--M. (A.) viridisulcatus Mjöberg 1916 LM87
                         |--M. (Clarkogyrus Ochs 1949) LM87
                         |    `--M. (*C.) reichei (Aubé 1838) [=Enhydrus reichei; incl. E. assimilis Clark 1864] LM87
                         |--M. (Megalogyrus Ochs 1949) LM87
                         |    `--M. (*M.) striolatus (Guérin-Méneville 1830) (see below for synonymy) LM87
                         |--M. (Orectomimus Ochs 1930) LM87
                         |    |--M. (*O.) paradoxus Régimbart 1883 LM87
                         |    `--M. (O.) darlingtoni Ochs 1949 LM87
                         |--M. (Tribologyrus Ochs 1949) LM87
                         |    |--M. (*T.) australis (Brullé 1835) (see below for synonymy) LM87
                         |    |--M. (T.) angustatus Régimbart 1883 LM87
                         |    |    |--M. a. angustatus LM87
                         |    |    `--M. a. metallescens Ochs 1949 LM87
                         |    |--M. (T.) elongatus Régimbart 1883 LM87
                         |    |    |--M. e. elongatus LM87
                         |    |    `--M. e. laevis Ochs 1929 LM87
                         |    |--M. (T.) finschi Ochs 1925 LM87
                         |    |    |--M. f. finschi LM87
                         |    |    `--M. f. minor Ochs 1949 LM87
                         |    |--M. (T.) gibbosus Ochs 1956 LM87
                         |    `--M. (T.) venator (Boisduval 1835) [=Gyrinus venator] LM87
                         `--M. (Tribolomimus Ochs 1949) LM87
                              |--M. (*T.) reticulatus Régimbart 1899 LM87
                              `--M. (T.) gouldii (Hope 1842) [=Dineutes gouldii] LM87

Dineutus (*Cyclous) australis (Fabricius 1775) [=Gyrinus australis; incl. G. dentipennis Macleay 1825, G. iridis Hope 1842, Dineutus janthinus Blanchard 1853, D. leucopoda Montrouzier 1860, Gyrinus limbatus Macleay 1825, G. rufipes Fabricius 1801] LM87

Gyrinus (Gyrinus) convexiusculus Macleay 1871 [incl. G. huttoni Pascoe 1877, G. simoni Régimbart 1883] LM87

Macrogyrus (Australogyrus) rivularis (Clark 1864) [=Enhydrus rivularis; incl. M. longipes Régimbart 1883] LM87

Macrogyrus (*Megalogyrus) striolatus (Guérin-Méneville 1830) [=Gyrinus striolatus; incl. M. fortissimus Blackburn 1901] LM87

Macrogyrus (*Tribologyrus) australis (Brullé 1835) [=Enhydrus australis; incl. M. canaliculatus Régimbart 1883, E. oblongus Aubé 1838 non Gyrinus oblongus Boisduval 1835, M. simoni Régimbart 1883] LM87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB68] Basford, N. L., J. E. Butler, C. A. Leone & F. J. Rohlf. 1968. Immunologic comparisons of selected Coleoptera with analyses of relationships using numerical taxonomic methods. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 388–406.

[BW13] Beutel, R. G., B. Wang, J.-J. Tan, S.-Q. Ge, D. Ren & X.-K. Yang. 2013. On the phylogeny and evolution of Mesozoic and extant lineages of Adephaga (Coleoptera, Insecta). Cladistics 29 (2): 147–165.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R89] Régimbart, M. 1889. Enumération des Haliplidae, Dytiscidae et Gyrinidae recueillis par M.r le Prof. L. Balzan dans l’Amérique méridionale et description de quelques autres espèces voisines. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 256–268.

[RB02] Ribera, I., R. G. Beutel, M. Balke & A. P. Vogler. 2002. Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 269: 2351–2356.

[R01] Roughley, R. E. 2001. Gyrinidae Latreille, 1810. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 133–137. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 10 November 2018.

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