British soldiers Cladonia cristatella, photographed by Zen Sutherland.

Belongs within: Lecanoromycetidae.

The Cladoniaceae is a family of lichenised fungi, especially abundant in cold climates. Species of Cladonia are among the primary food sources for grazers such as reindeer in tundra regions. Ascomata are borne at the top of vertical podetia, which may also contain symbiotic algae (as in Cladonia) or not (as in Gymnoderma).

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Thallus usually dimorphic, composed of an evanescent to persistent, crustose, foliose or squamulose primary thallus lacking rhizoids and a more or less vertical, usually branched, solid or hollow secondary thallus bearing the ascomata. Soredia sometimes present. Ascomata apothecial, entire to lobate, without a fully differentiated margin, often brightly coloured, sometimes proliferating. Interascal tissue of sparsely branched and anastomosed paraphyses. Asci cylindric-clavate, thickened at apex,with J+ apical cap and usually a J+ gelatinous outer layer. Ascospores usually aseptate and hyaline. Cephalodia sometimes present. Anamorphs coelomycetous, pycnidial, with simple more or less filiform spermatial conidia. Lichenised with green algae.

    |--Pycnothelia papillaria EB03, E99
    |--Calathaspis EB03
    |--Heteromyces EB03
    |--Metus EB03
    |--Myelorrhiza EB03
    |--Ramalea EB03
    |--Sphaerophoropsis EB03
    |--Thysanothecium EB03
    |--Cladia [Cladiaceae] EB03
    |    `--C. aggregata E99
    |--Pilophorus (Tuck.) Fries 1858 [=Stereocaulon sect. Pilophoron Tuck. 1848] F33
    |    |--P. acicularis E99
    |    |--P. cereolus (Acharius) Fries 1874 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    `--P. robustus Fries 1857 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |--Gymnoderma Nylander 1860 (nom. cons.) EB03, WA02
    |    |--*G. coccocarpum Nylander 1860 (see below for synonymy) WA02
    |    |--G. insulare Yoshimura & Sharp 1968 WA02
    |    `--‘Heterodea’ madagascarea Nylander 1888 WA02
    `--Cladonia F33
         |--C. alcicornis [incl. C. foliacea] F33
         |--C. arbuscula HP03
         |    |--C. a. ssp. arbuscula HP03
         |    `--C. a. ssp. mitis HP03
         |--C. bacillaris F33
         |--C. bellidiflora E99
         |--C. caespititia F33
         |--C. caroliniana JK06
         |--C. ceratophylla J87
         |--C. cervicornis M08
         |--C. coccifera F33
         |--C. coniocraea M08
         |--C. convoluta M08
         |--C. cornucopiae H04
         |--C. cristatella PHK96
         |--C. degenerans F33
         |--C. didyma J87
         |    |--C. d. var. didyma J87
         |    `--C. d. var. vulcanica J87
         |--C. digitata F33
         |--C. endiviaefolia C74
         |--C. fimbriata H04
         |--C. floerkeana F33 [=C. macilenta ssp. floerkeana M08]
         |--C. furcata F33
         |--C. gracilis F33
         |--C. leptophylla F33
         |--C. merochlorophaea J87
         |--C. multipartita J87
         |--C. papillaria F33
         |--C. perfoliata H04
         |--C. pleurota M08
         |--C. pycnoclada D03
         |--C. pyxidata F33
         |    |--C. p. ssp. pyxidata M08
         |    |--C. p. ssp. chlorophaea M08
         |    `--C. p. ssp. pocillum M08
         |--C. ramulosa J87
         |--C. rangiformis M08
         |--C. retipora H04
         |--C. spiculata J87
         |--C. squamosa J87
         |    |--C. s. var. squamosa J87
         |    `--C. s. var. subsquamosa J87
         |--C. subcervicornis E99
         |--C. subradiata J87
         |--C. subulata M08
         |--C. symphycarpa M08
         |--C. verticillata H04
         `--C. yunnana WA02

*Gymnoderma coccocarpum Nylander 1860 [=Cladonia coccocarpa (Nylander) Evans 1860; incl. C. botryocephala Hepp in Zollinger 1854] WA02

Pilophorus cereolus (Acharius) Fries 1874 [=Lichen cereolus Acharius 1798, Pilophoron cereolus, Stereocaulon cereolus (Acharius) Acharius 1803; incl. S. cereolinum Acharius 1814, S. paschale var. cereolinum (Acharius) Schaerer 1833, S. fibula Tuck 1848] F33

Pilophorus robustus Fries 1857 [=Pilophoron robustum, Pilophorus cereolus f. robustus (Fries) Tuck. 1882; incl. Pilophoron polycarpum Tuck. 1858] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated


Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440–2755. Myconet 2: 1–41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1–89.

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In: Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9 sect. 4 pt 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HP03] Hauck, M., A. Paul, S. Gross & M. Raubuch. 2003. Manganese toxicity in epiphytic lichens: chlorophyll degradation and interaction with iron and phosphorus. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 181–191.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818–822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[WA02] Wei, J.-C., & T. Ahti. 2002. Cetradonia, a new genus in the new family Cetradoniaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). Lichenologist 34 (1): 19–31.

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