Chilean rimu Lepidothamnus foncki, copyright Jeff Bisbee.

Belongs within: Coniferophyta.
Contains: Miroviaceae, Doliostrobaceae, Voltziales, Pinaceae, Cheirolepidiaceae, Cupressophyta.

The name Pinopsida is used here for a clade uniting the living conifers with the Palaeozoic Voltziales (probably a paraphyletic grouping). Unique morphological synapomorphies have not yet been identified for this clade (Rothwell & Mapes 2001), but the crown group Coniferae is supported relative to other living plants by their needlelike leaves, tiered proembryos and loss or extreme reduction of one copy of the inverted repeat in the chloroplast genome (Cantino et al. 2007). Recent phylogenies have mostly placed the Pinaceae as the sister clade to the remaining living conifers.

<==Pinopsida [Coniferales, Coniferopsida, Conopsida]
    |--Voltziales FC07
    `--Coniferae [Pinoideae] CD07
         |  i. s.: Lepidothamnus D03
         |           |--L. foncki D03
         |           `--L. laxifolius W91
         |--Pinaceae FC07
         `--+--Cheirolepidiaceae FC07
            `--Cupressophyta CD07

Pinopsida incertae sedis:
  Tylodendron H-CRM01
  Palaeotaxites praecursor H-CRM01
  Paranocladus H-CRM01
  Ugartecladus genoensis H-CRM01
  Szecladia multinervia H-CRM01
  Dadoxylon H-CRM01
    |--D. farleyensis Walkom 1928 F71
    `--D. owangondianum H-CRM01
  Araucarioxylon arizonicum H-CRM01, GE05
  Walchiopremnon valdajolense H-CRM01
  Culmitzschia H-CRM01
  Buriadia heterophylla H-CRM01, RM01
  Curionia H-CRM01
  Feysia H-CRM01
  Gomphostrobus bifidus H-CRM01, RM01
  Walkomia H-CRM01
  Podocarpites ZBH03
  Cephalotaxopsis ZBH03
  Samaropsis pincombei Walkom 1928 Z02, F71
  Bilsdalea dura Z02
  Heidiphyllum Z02
  Podozamites Braun 1843 [Podozamitaceae] BO02
    |--P. gracilis [=Araucarites gracilis] F71
    `--P. guttiformis BO02
  Pityophyllum RY03
  Rhipidiocladus RY03
  Elatocladus RY03
    |--E. australis F71
    `--E. planus F71
  Schizolepis RY03
  Cyparissidium gracile GT02
  Hirmerellaceae Z02
    |--Pagiophyllum GT02
    |--Brachyphyllum GT02
    |    |--B. graciliforme BO02
    |    |--B. hegewaldia BO02
    |    `--B. speciosa BO02
    `--Hirmeriella muensteri (Schenk) Jung 1968 S05
  Sequoites GT02
  Miroviaceae G02
  Sciadopityoxylon PM02
  Xenoxylon PM02
  Podocarpoxylon Gothan 1905 JD05
    |--P. angustiporosum JD05
    |--P. helmstedtianum Gottwald 1966 K02
    `--P. knowltonii JD05
  Protopodocarpoxylon S03
  Doliostrobaceae K02
  Dammara K02
    |--D. borealis K02
    |--D. intermedia Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |--D. macrosperma K02
    `--D. podozamioides Ettingshausen 1886 F71
  Chamaecyparites hardtii K02
  Embothrites cuneatus Ettinghausen 1868 K02
  Rufloria [Rufloriaceae] RM01
  Pityanthus jefferyi RM01
  Eutactoides Pole 2000 P00
    `--*E. wintonensis Pole 2000 P00
  Circoporoxylon Kraeusel 1949 JD05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BO02] Barale, G., & M. Ouaja. 2002. La biodiversité végétale des gisements d’âge Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé inférieur de Merbah El Asfer (Sud-Tunisien). Cretaceous Research 23: 707-737.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FC07] Friis, E. M., P. R. Crane, K. R. Pedersen, S. Bengtson, P. C. J. Donoghue, G. W. Grimm & M. Stampanoni. 2007. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seed with Gnetales and Bennettitales. Nature 450: 549-552.

[G02] Gomez, B. 2002. A new species of Mirovia (Coniferales, Miroviaceae) from the Lower Cretaceous of the Iberian Ranges (Spain). Cretaceous Research 23: 761-773.

[GT02] Gomez, B., F. Thévenard, M. Fantin & L. Guisberti. 2002. Late Cretaceous plants from the Bonarelli Level of the Venetian Alps, northeastern Italy. Cretaceous Research 23: 671-685.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H-CRM01] Hernandez-Castillo, G. R., G. W. Rothwell & G. Mapes. 2001. Thucydiaceae fam. nov., with a review and reevaluation of Paleozoic walchian conifers. International Journal of Plant Science 162 (5): 1155-1185.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K02] Kvaček, Z. 2002. Novelties on Doliostrobus (Doliostrobaceae), an extinct conifer genus of the European Palaeogene. Časopis Národního Muzea, Řada Přírodovědná 171 (1-4): 47-62.

[PM02] Philippe, M., H. Méon, G. Lambert, B. Erdei, F. Thevenard & B. Gomez. 2002. A palm-tree and Sciadopitys swamp-forest from the Neogene of Bresse (eastern France). Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 221-225.

[P00] Pole, M. S. 2000. Mid-Cretaceous conifers from the Eromanga Basin, Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 13 (2): 153-197.

[RY03] Ren, D., & J. Yin. 2003. New ‘osmylid-like’ fossil Neuroptera from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 111 (1): 1-11.

[RM01] Rothwell, G. W., & G. Mapes. 2001. Barthelia furcata gen. et sp. nov., with a review of Paleozoic coniferophytes and a discussion of coniferophyte systematics. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (3): 637-667.

[S05] Säilä, L. K. 2005. A new species of the sphenodontian reptile Clevosaurus from the Lower Jurassic of south Wales. Palaeontology 48 (4): 817-831.

[S03] Skog, J. E. 2003. Report of the Committee for Fossil Plants: 4. Taxon 52: 341.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 303-324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[ZBH03] Zhou, Z., P. M. Barrett & J. Hilton. 2003. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 421: 807-814.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS