Membranous dog-lichen Peltigera membranacea, from here.

Belongs within: Peltigerineae.

The Peltigeraceae are a family of generally cyanobacterium-associated lichenised fungi, found worldwide but particularly in temperate regions.

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Lichenized with cyanobacteria or green algae (then often with cyanobacterial cephalodia). Thallus usually large and spreading, foliose, lobed, usually green or dark greyish, matt or shiny, sometimes with cephalodia, corticate only on the upper surface, the lower surface often tomentose and with conspicuous rhizoids. Ascomata apothecial, formed on the upper surface, laminar or marginal, with a thin covering layer which breaks apart at an early stage to expose the hymenium, flat or saddleshaped, brown or black. Interascal tissue of simple conglutinate paraphyses, sometimes swollen at the tip. Asci fissitunicate with a thickened apex, a J+ apical ring and a more weakly J+ gelatinized outer layer. Ascospores hyaline to brown, elongate, transversely septate, sometimes ornamented. Anamorphs pycnidial, poorly known.

    |--Solorina [Solorinaceae] ML04
    |    |--S. crocea (Linnaeus) Ach. 1810 [=Lichen croceus Linnaeus 1753] M60
    |    `--S. saccata ML04
    `--Peltigera ML04
         |  i. s.: P. austroamericana J87
         |         P. coloradoensis Gyelnik 1930 M60
         |         P. didactyla RS99
         |         P. meridiana M60
         |         P. neopolydactyla ML04
         |--P. (subg. Peltidea) nigripunctata Bitt. 1909 [incl. P. nigripunctata f. farinosa Gyelnik 1932] M60
         `--P. subg. Peltigera M60
              |  i. s.: P. dolichorhiza Nyl. 1888 [=P. polydactyla var. dolichorhiza Nyl. 1860, P. dolichorrhiza] M60
              |           |--P. d. var. dolichorhiza [incl. P. dolichorhiza f. javanica Gyelnik 1930] M60
              |           |--P. d. var. nana (Nyl.) Murray 1960 (see below for synonymy) M60
              |           `--P. d. var. oceanica [=P. oceanica Gyelnik 1931] M60
              |         P. frigida M60
              |         P. horizontalis M60
              |           |--P. h. var. horizontalis M60
              |           `--P. h. var. muscorum (Schleich) Schaer. 1833 [=P. muscorum Schleich 1823] M60
              |                |--P. h. var. m. f. muscorum M60
              |                `--P. h. var. m. f. albido-pruinosa Murray 1960 M60
              |         P. lairdii Dodge & Rudolph 1955 M60
              |         P. scutata (Dicks) Duby 1830 [=P. polydactyla var. scutata Müll. Arg. 1896] M60
              |         P. virescens (Stnr.) Gyelnik 1932 (see below for synonymy) M60
              |--+--P. scabrosa ML04
              |  `--+--P. polydactylum (Neck.) Hoffm. 1790 ML04, M60 (see below for synonymy)
              |     |    |--P. p. var. polydactylum M60
              |     |    |    |--P. p. var. p. f. polydactylum M60
              |     |    |    `--P. p. var. p. f. microcarpa M60
              |     |    `--P. p. var. magyarica (Gyelnik) Murray 1960 [=P. magyarica Gyelnik 1937] M60
              |     `--+--P. occidentalis ML04
              |        `--P. hymenina ML04 [=P. polydactyla var. hymenina M60]
              `--+--P. hydrothyria Miadlikowska & Lutzoni 2000 [=Hydrothyria venosa] ML04
                 `--+--+--P. venosa ML04
                    |  `--+--P. leucophlebia ML04
                    |     `--+--P. malacea (Ach.) Funck 1827 ML04, M60 [=Peltidea malacea Ach. 1814 M60]
                    |        `--+--P. aphthosa ML04
                    |           `--P. britannica ML04
                    |--+--P. elisabethae ML04
                    |  `--+--P. neckeri ML04
                    |     `--P. polydactyloides Nyl. 1863 ML04, M60 (see below for synonymy)
                    |--P. retifoveata ML04
                    `--+--+--P. monticola ML04
                       |  `--P. ponojensis ML04
                       `--+--P. continentalis ML04
                          |--P. kristinssonii ML04
                          `--+--+--+--P. extenuata ML04
                             |  |  `--P. lambinonii ML04
                             |  `--+--P. laciniata ML04
                             |     `--P. rufescens Humb. 1793 ML04, M60 (see below for synonymy)
                             `--+--P. cinnamomea ML04
                                `--+--P. degenii ML04
                                   |--P. membranacea ML04
                                   `--+--P. canina (Linnaeus) Willd. 1787 ML04, M60 [=Lichen caninus Linnaeus 1753 M60]
                                      |    |--P. c. var. canina [incl. P. c. var. albescens, P. c. var. ulorrhiza] M60
                                      |    `--P. c. var. spuria (Ach.) Schaer 1833 (see below for synonymy) M60
                                      |         |--P. c. var. s. f. spuria M60
                                      |         `--P. c. var. s. f. sorediata Schaer. 1850 M60
                                      `--P. praetextata (Flk.) Wain 1899 ML04, M60 (see below for synonymy)

Peltigera canina var. spuria (Ach.) Schaer 1833 [=Lichen spurius Ach. 1798, P. rufescens var. spuria Kitk 1871; incl. P. pusilla Müller 1896, P. canina var. pusilla Bab. in Hooker 1855] M60

Peltigera dolichorhiza var. nana (Nyl.) Murray 1960 [=P. polydactyla var. nana, P. nana Wainio 1913, P. nana var. philippina Gyelnik 1936 (nom. illeg.); incl. P. nana f. nervosa Gyelnik apud Zahlbr. 1941] M60

Peltigera polydactyloides Nyl. 1863 ML04, M60 [=P. polydactyla var. polydactyloides M60; incl. P. crassoides Gyeln. 1930 M60]

Peltigera polydactylum (Neck.) Hoffm. 1790 ML04, M60 [=Lichen polydactylon Neck. 1771 M60, Peltidea polydactyla Hooker 1844 M60; incl. P. polydactyla f. lophyra M60, P. polydactyla f. minor Krmph. 1870 M60]

Peltigera praetextata (Flk.) Wain 1899 ML04, M60 [=Peltidea ulorrhiza var. praetextata Flk. apud Sommerf. 1826 M60; incl. P. nitens f. zeelandica Gyeln. 1929 M60]

Peltigera rufescens Humb. 1793 ML04, M60 [=Lichen caninus var. rufescens Weis. 1770 M60, P. canina var. rufescens (Weis.) Mudd 1861 M60; incl. P. rufescens var. spuria Hooker 1867 non Lichen spurius Ach. 1798 M60]

Peltigera virescens (Stnr.) Gyelnik 1932 [=P. rufescens var. virescens Steiner apud Zahlbr. & Zederb. 1907; incl. P. pellucida f. dilacerata Gyeln. apud Zahlbr. 1941, P. degeni f. tasmaniae Gyel. 1929, P. virescens var. tasmaniae Gyelnik apud Zahlbruckner 1941, P. tereziana Gyelnik 1928] M60

*Type species of generic name indicated


Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[ML04] Miadlikowska, J., & F. Lutzoni. 2004. Phylogenetic classification of peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 449-464.

[M60] Murray, J. 1960. Studies on New Zealand lichens. Part III.—The family Peltigeraceae. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 381-399.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

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