Radula complanata, photographed by Dragiša Savić.

Belongs within: Marchantiophyta.
Contains: Cephaloziaceae, Scapaniaceae, Plagiochila, Schistochila, Lejeuneaceae, Porella, Frullania, Lepidoziaceae, Geocalycaceae, Herbertineae, Jungermannia.

The Jungermanniales are the leafy liverworts, a clade of liverworts with well-defined leaf-like structures on the stems. Also significant in recognising the group are the terminal (acrogynous) perichaetia, positioned on the end of branches. Major subgroups include the Jungermanniaceae, with unlobed, succubous leaves, a terminal perianth, and rhizoids scattered along the stem.

Characters (from Crandall-Stotler & Stotler 2000): Apical cells usually tetrahedral with third face ventral; ventral appendages, when present, produced in a single row and foliose; leaves formed from two initials that are anodic and kathodic in orientation; endogenous branches common; perichaetia always acrogynous, terminating either main stem or a branch; bracts/bracteoles and perianths associated with perichaetium; archegonial neck consisting of five rows of neck cells; capsule always dehiscing into four valves; gemmae, when present, one- or two-celled, developing in a blastic manner.

<==Jungermanniales [Jungermanniidae]
    |--Perssoniellineae SF01
    |    |--Pachyschistochila reflexistipula EB01
    |    `--Schistochila SF01
    |--Porellineae SF01
    |    |--Lejeuneaceae SF01
    |    |--Porella SF01
    |    `--Jubulaceae G06
    |         |--Frullania SF01
    |         `--Jubula G06
    |              |--J. hattorii G06
    |              `--J. hutchinsiae G06
    |--Lepidolaenineae SF01
    |    |--Lepidogyna hodgsoniae SF01
    |    |--Hariotiella hermitensis Massal. & Besch. 1898 E03
    |    `--Lepidolaena E03
    |         |--L. clavigera M49
    |         |--L. hariotiana Schiffn. in Engler & Prantl 1895 [=Polyotus hariotianus Besch. & Massal. 1886] E03
    |         |--L. magellanica (Lam.) Lindb. 1873 (see below for synonymy) E03
    |         |--L. menziesii (Hooker) Dumort. 1835 (see below for synonymy) E03
    |         |--L. palpebrifolia M49
    |         `--L. taylori M49
    |--Ptilidiaceae [Ptilidiineae] SF01
    |    |--Ptilidium SF01
    |    |    |--P. ciliare SF01
    |    |    `--P. pulcherrimum M08
    |    `--Trichocolea J87
    |         |--T. australis M49
    |         |--T. indica G06
    |         |--T. lanata M49
    |         |--T. mollissima SF01
    |         |--T. polyacantha E03
    |         |--T. tenera G06
    |         |--T. tomentella M49
    |         |--T. tomentosa (see below for synonymy) E03
    |         `--T. verticillata E03
    |--Radula [Radulaceae, Radulineae] SF01
    |    |--R. acuminata Steph. 1910 L03
    |    |--R. assamica Steph. 1884 L03
    |    |--R. complanata FHH01
    |    |--R. cubensis J87
    |    |--R. flaccida E99
    |    |--R. flavifolia Taylor 1845 [=Jungermannia flavifolia Hooker & Taylor 1844] E03
    |    |--R. floridana J87
    |    |--R. grandis SF01
    |    |--R. helix E03
    |    |--R. inflexa J87
    |    |--R. intempestiva E03
    |    |--R. javanica Gott. in Gott. 1845 L03
    |    |--R. korthalsii J87
    |    |--R. lindbergiana G06
    |    |--R. microlobula J87
    |    |--R. mollis J87
    |    |--R. physoloba M49
    |    |--R. plicata E03
    |    |--R. plumosa E03
    |    |--R. protensa Lindenb. in Meissner 1848 L03
    |    |--R. punctata E03
    |    |--R. sainsburiana M49
    |    |--R. striata E03
    |    |--R. tenera D03
    |    |--R. tjibodensis Goeb. 1893 L03
    |    |--R. uvifera M49
    |    `--R. voluta J87
    `--+--Lepidoziaceae SF01
       |--Geocalycaceae SF01
       |--Herbertineae SF01
       |--Lepicolea [Lepicoleineae] SF01
       |    |--L. attenuata SF01
       |    |--L. ochroleuca (Spreng.) Lindb. 1875 (see below for synonymy) E03
       |    |--L. quadrilaciniata E03
       |    |--L. scolopendra M49
       |    `--L. teres E03
       `--Jungermanniaceae [Jungermanniineae] SF01
            |--Jungermannia SF01
            |--Anstrepta orcadensis G06
            |--Tetralophozia filiformis G06
            |--Nardia G06
            |    |--N. emarginata D24
            |    `--N. flegelliformis G06
            |--Chandonanthus G06
            |    |--C. birmensis G06
            |    |--C. hirtellus G06
            |    `--C. squarrosus SF01
            |--Notoscyphus G06
            |    |--N. darjeelingensis G06
            |    |--N. lutescens PK03
            |    |--N. pandei G06
            |    `--N. paroicus G06
            |--Anastrophyllum G06
            |    |--A. assimile G06
            |    |--A. decurrens E03
            |    |--A. involutifolium E03
            |    |--A. longissimum E03
            |    |--A. minutum M08
            |    `--A. schismoides M49
            |--Lophozia G06
            |    |--L. bicrenata M08
            |    |--L. dusenii D03
            |    |--L. excisa M08
            |    |--L. incisa G06
            |    |--L. longidens G06
            |    |--L. perssonii M08
            |    `--L. setosa G06
            `--Jamesoniella J87
                 |--J. autumnalis G06
                 |--J. colorata (Lehmann) Schiffn. in Engler & Prantl 1893 [=Jungermannia colorata Lehmann 1829] E03
                 |--J. grandiflora E03
                 |--J. oenops E03
                 |--J. paludosa E03
                 |--J. pseudo-occlusa M49
                 |--J. rubricaulis J87
                 |--J. sonderi M49
                 `--J. tasmanica M49

Jungermanniales incertae sedis:
  Cephaloziaceae FHH01
  Gymnomitriaceae FHH01
    |--Gymnomitrium stygium M49
    `--Marsupella FHH01
         |--M. funckii FHH01
         `--M. kerguelensis E03
  Scapaniaceae FHH01
  Neogrollea Hodgson 1965 [Neogrolleaceae, Neogrolleoideae, Neogrollineae] EB01
    `--*N. notabilis Hodgson 1965 EB01
  Plagiochilaceae J87
    |--Plagiochila SF01
    `--Tylimanthus J87
         |--T. anderssonii (Ångstr.) Evans 1903 [=Gymnanthe anderssonii Ångstr. 1876] E03
         |--T. approximatus J87
         |--T. brecknockiensis E03
         |--T. crystallinus E03
         |--T. fendleri D03
         |--T. integrifolius E03
         |--T. saccatus SF01
         `--T. viridis D03
  Adelocolea E03
    |--A. decipiens E03
    `--A. unciformis (Hooker & Taylor) Evans 1903 (see below for synonymy) E03
  Adelanthus magellanicus SF01, E03
  Calypogeaceae G06
    |--Matacalypogeia alternifolia G06
    `--Calypogeia G06
         |--C. fissa G06
         |--C. hartlessiana G06
         |--C. integristipula M08
         |--C. muelleriana M08
         |--C. renistipula G06
         `--C. trichomanis G06
  Cephaloziella [Cephaloziellaceae] G06
    |--C. divaricata M08
    |--C. exiliflora M49
    |--C. hampeana M08
    |--C. indica G06
    |--C. kiaeri AKS07
    |--C. rubella M08
    `--C. subdentata G06
  Acrobolbus [Acrobolbaceae] G06
    `--A. ciliatus G06
  Mastigophora [Mastigophoraceae] G06
    |--M. antarctica E03
    `--M. woodsi G06

Adelocolea unciformis (Hooker & Taylor) Evans 1903 [=Jungermannia unciformis Hooker & Taylor 1844, Adelanthus unciformis Spruce 1876, Plagiochila unciformis Hooker & Taylor 1847; incl. Jungermannia haliotiphylla De Not. 1857, Adelanthus lindenbergianus (Lehmann) Mitt. 1864, Plagiochila sphaleria Hooker & Taylor 1847] E03

Lepicolea ochroleuca (Spreng.) Lindb. 1875 [=Jungermannia ochroleuca Spreng. 1829, Herberta ochroleuca Trevis. 1877, Leperoma ochroleuca Mitt. in Hooker 1867, Sendtnera ochroleuca Nees 1845] E03

Lepidolaena magellanica (Lam.) Lindb. 1873 [=Jungermannia magellanica, Gackstroemia magellanica Trevis. 1877, Polyotus magellanicus Gottsche 1845] E03

Lepidolaena menziesii (Hooker) Dumort. 1835 [=Jungermannia menziesii Hooker 1820, Polyotus menziesii Gottsche 1845] E03

Trichocolea tomentosa [=Jungermannia tomentosa Swartz 1788, Basichiton tomentosum Trevis. 1877, J. tomentella var. tomentosa Lindenb. 1829, Leiomitra tomentosa Lindb. 1875, Trichocolea tomentella var. tomentosa L. & N. 1844] E03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AKS07] Alam, A., A. Kumar & S. C. Srivastava. 2007. Jungermannia nilgiriensis, a new species from Nilgiri Hills (Western Ghats) India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 219–224.

Crandall-Stotler, B., & R. E. Stotler. 2000. Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta. In: Shaw, A. J., & B. Goffinet (eds) Bryophyte Biology pp. 21-70. Cambridge University Press.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[EB01] Engel, J. J., & J. E. Braggins. 2001. Austral Hepaticae 34. The sporophyte of Neogrollea Hodgs. and the taxonomic position of Neogrolleaceae (Schust.) Engel & Braggins comb. & stat. nov. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 91: 173–204.

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440–2755. Myconet 2: 1–41.

[E03] Evans, A. W. 1903. Hepaticae collected in southern Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 35–62. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[G06] Ghosh, J. P. 2006. A preliminary check-list of hepatics of West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1–4): 73–102.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[L03] Lal, J. 2003. Studies in epiphyllous liverworts of India—its present position. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 179–186.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. The bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 257–277.

[PK03] Piippo, S., & T. Koponen. 2003. Review of the bryofloristic connections of New Guinea Island. Telopea 10 (1): 467–476.

[SF01] Stech, M., & W. Frey. 2001. CpDNA-relationship and classification of the liverworts (Hepaticophytina, Bryophyta). Nova Hedwigia 72 (1–2): 45–58.

Last updated: 24 January 2018.

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