Pseudocyphellaria crocata, photographed by Carl Farmer.

Belongs within: Lecanoromycetidae.
Contains: Peltigeraceae.

The Peltigerineae are a clade of lichen-forming fungi which may grow in association with either one or two varieties photosynthetic organisms. If only a single photobiont is present, it will usually be a cyanobacterium (rarely a green alga); if two are present, they will be a cyanobacterium and a green alga, with the green alga dominant and cyanobacteria restricted to internal or external cephalodia (Miadlikowska & Lutzoni 2004). A number of species in the Peltigerineae are large and conspicuous, and have been used as indicators for determining ecological health.

Characters (from Miadlikowska & Lutzoni 2004): Thalli foliose, subfructicose or granular-squamulose; rhizines or tomentum present on lower side of thalus; ascospores predominantly multiseptate, colorless or brown, formed in asci with reactive a-layer and thick c-layer; paraphyses mostly unbranched, free.

<==Peltigerineae [Peltigerales]
    |--+--Massalongia carnosa ML04
    |  `--Nephroma ML04 [incl. Nephromium M60; Nephromataceae]
    |       |  i. s.: N. analogum M60
    |       |         N. australe Rich. 1832 M60
    |       |           |--N. a. var. australe (see below for synonymy) M60
    |       |           |    |--N. a. var. a. f. australe M60
    |       |           |    `--N. a. var. a. f. homalodes (Nyl.) Murray 1960 (see below for synonymy) M60
    |       |           `--N. a. var. rigidum Murray 1960 M60
    |       |         N. cellulosum (Sm.) Ach. 1810 (see below for synonymy) M60
    |       |           |--N. c. var. cellulosum M60
    |       |           `--N. c. var. isidioferum Murray 1960 M60
    |       |         N. helveticum Ach. 1810 (see below for synonymy) M60
    |       |           |--N. h. var. helveticum [incl. N. resupinata var. papyracea Ach. of Hook. 1855] M60
    |       |           `--N. h. var. rufum (Bab.) Murray 1960 (see below for synonymy) M60
    |       |         N. lyallii M60
    |       |           |--N. l. f. lyallii Bab. apud Hooker 1855 [incl. N. javanicum Gyelnik 1931] M60
    |       |           `--N. l. f. isidiatum Murray 1960 M60
    |       |         N. parile LK04
    |       |--N. resupinatum ML04
    |       `--+--N. arcticum ML04
    |          `--N. bellum ML04
    `--+--Peltigeraceae ML04
       `--Lobariaceae [Stictaceae] ML04
            |  i. s.: Dendriscocaulon EB03
            |--‘Pseudocyphellaria’ anomala ML04
            `--+--Lobaria ML04
               |    |--*L. pulmonaria ML04
               |    |--L. ravenelii J87
               |    |--L. retigera ML04
               |    `--L. virens ML04
               `--+--‘Lobaria’ hallii ML04
                  |--+--+--‘Lobaria’ amplissima ML04
                  |  |  `--‘Lobaria’ quercizans ML04
                  |  `--+--‘Pseudocyphellaria’ rainierensis ML04
                  |     `--+--‘Lobaria’ oregana ML04
                  |        `--Lobarina ML04
                  |             `--‘Lobaria’ scrobiculata ML04
                  `--+--Sticta ML04
                     |    |  i. s.: S. caulescens D03
                     |    |         S. cyphellulata RS99
                     |    |         S. damaecornis J87
                     |    |         S. filicina D03
                     |    |         S. laciniata J87
                     |    |         S. longipes D03
                     |    |         S. tomentosa J87
                     |    |         S. weigelii J87
                     |    |--S. carolinensis ML04
                     |    `--+--S. fragilinata ML04
                     |       `--+--S. fuliginosa ML04
                     |          `--S. limbata ML04
                     `--Pseudocyphellaria ML04
                          |--P. aurata ML04
                          |--P. crocata ML04
                          |--P. divulsa ML04
                          |--P. faveolata D03
                          |    |--P. f. var. faveolata D03
                          |    `--P. f. var. cervicornis D03
                          |--P. fossulata D03
                          |--P. freycinetii D03
                          |    |--P. f. var. freycinetii D03
                          |    `--P. f. var. isidioloma D03
                          |--P. hirsuta D03
                          |--P. intricata D03
                          |    |--P. i. var. intricata D03
                          |    `--P. i. var. thouarsii D03
                          |--P. nitida D03
                          |--P. orymaea D03
                          |    |--P. o. ssp. orymaea D03
                          |    `--P. o. ssp. flavicans D03
                          |--P. perpetua ML04
                          |--P. physciospora D03
                          `--P. urvillei D03

Nephroma australe Rich. 1832 var. australe [incl. N. homanii Gyelnik 1931, N. resupinata var. pruinosa Mont. 1837-1840, N. schizocarpum Nyl. 1860 , N. antarcticum var. tenue Nyl. 1860] M60

Nephroma australe var. australe f. homalodes (Nyl.) Murray 1960 [=N. homalodes Nyl. 1888; incl. N. antarcticum Hellbom 1896, N. neozelandicum Gyelnik apud Zahlbruckner 1941, N. zelandicum f. squamicolum Gyelnik 1938, N. zelandicum Gyelnik 1938] M60

Nephroma cellulosum (Sm.) Ach. 1810 [=Lichen cellulosus Sm. apud Ach. 1803, Nephromium cellulosum Nyl. 1860] M60

Nephroma helveticum Ach. 1810 [=Nephromium helveticum Nyl. 1888; incl. N. denticulatum, N. tropicum] M60

Nephroma helveticum var. rufum (Bab.) Murray 1960 [=Nephroma resupinatum var. rufa Bab. in Hooker 1855, Nephromium helveticum var. rufum Nyl. apud Hue 1890, Nephromium laevigatum var. rufum Nyl. 1860; incl. Nephromium laevigatum Hooker 1867] M60

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota – 2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446-1480.

[ML04] Miadlikowska, J., & F. Lutzoni. 2004. Phylogenetic classification of peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 449-464.

[M60] Murray, J. 1960. Studies on New Zealand lichens. Part III.—The family Peltigeraceae. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 381-399.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

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