Haplomitrium hookeri, photographed by Des Callaghan.

Belongs within: Embryophyta.
Contains: Marchantiopsida, Jungermanniales, Metzgeriales, Fossombroniopsida.

The Marchantiophyta (also often referred to as the Hepaticae) include the liverworts, small, often moss-like plants found in damp habitats. Liverworts are distinguished from other land plants by the presence of oil bodies in the gametophytes of many species, and by the presence in the sporangium of elaters, elongate non-sporogenous cells with spiral wall thickenings. The elaters function in spore dispersal by twisting out of the capsule as the sporangium dries (Simpson 2010). Liverworts are often divided between the 'leafy' and 'thalloid' liverworts, depending on whether the plant body bears distinct leaf-like structures. In general, members of the Jungermanniales are leafy, while others are thalloid, though members of the Metzgeriidae are often intermediate to a certain degree.

<==Marchantiophyta [Hepaticae, Hepaticophytina]
    |--Treubiaceae [Treubiopsida] SF01
    |    |--Apotreubia FHH01
    |    |    |--A. hortonae FHH01
    |    |    `--A. nana G06
    |    `--Treubia lacunosa SF01
    `--+--Marchantiopsida SF01
       `--+--Blasia [Blasiaceae, Blasiineae, Blasiopsida] SF01
          |    `--B. pusilla SF01
          `--Jungermanniopsida SF01
               |--Jungermanniales SF01
               `--Metzgeriidae SF01
                    |--Metzgeriales SF01
                    |--Fossombroniopsida SF01
                    `--Haplomitriaceae [Calobryales, Calobryidae, Haplomitriopsida] SF01
                         |--Haplomitrium SF01
                         |    |--H. blumii FHH01
                         |    |--H. gibbsiae SF01
                         |    |--H. grollei G06
                         |    |--H. hookeri SF01
                         |    `--H. kashyapii G06
                         `--Calobryum G06
                              |--C. dentatum G06
                              `--C. indicum G06

Marchantiophyta incertae sedis:
  Microlepidozia EB01
  Hepaticites Walton 1925 BO02
    |--H. arcuatus BO02
    |--H. elegans Barale & Ouaja 2002 BO02
    `--H. haiburnensis BO02
  Lethocolea F01
    |--L. congesta F01
    |--L. javanica F01
    |--L. naruto-toganensis Furuki 2001 F01
    `--L. pansa [incl. L. squamata] F01
  Codonia Dumortier 1822 FT93
  Goebelobryum unguiculatum P05
  Schisma E03
    |--S. chilensis E03
    `--S. dura D03
  Isotachis E03
    |--I. anceps E03
    |--I. bisbifida E03
    |--I. gigantea M49
    |--I. intortifolia M49
    |--I. madida E03
    |--I. montana M49
    |--I. quadriloba E03
    |--I. spegazziniana E03
    `--I. splendens E03
  Leioscyphus E03
    |--L. abnormis E03
    |--L. aequatus E03
    |--L. repens E03
    |--L. setistipus E03
    |--L. surrepens E03
    `--L. turgescens E03
  Mastigobryum E03
    |--M. lechleri D03
    |--M. mooreanum M49
    |--M. novae-hollandiae M49
    |--M. novae-zelandiae D03
    `--M. peruvianum E03
  Madotheca E03
    |--M. gracilenta D03
    |--M. recurva D03
    `--M. subsquarrosa E03
  Eulejeunea patagonica D03
  Cryptomitrium tenerum D03
  Alobiella dusenii D03
  Androcryphia porphyrorrhiza Nees 1846 (see below for synonymy) E03
  Blepharostoma E03
    |--B. palmatum E03
    |--B. pilosum Evans 1898 E03
    `--B. quadripartitum (Hooker) Trevis 1877 (see below for synonymy) E03
  Marsupidium E03
    |--M. brecknockiense E03
    |--M. crystallinum (Massal.) Besch. & Massal. 1889 (see below for synonymy) E03
    `--M. urvilleanum (Mont.) Mitt. in Hooker 1867 (see below for synonymy) E03
  Mylia E03
    |--M. abdita (Sulliv.) Evans 1903 (see below for synonymy) E03
    `--M. chiloscyphoideus (see below for synonymy) E03
  Pigafettoa crenulata Massal. 1885 E03
  Acolea concinnata E03
  Alicularia spathulifolia E03
  Balantiopsis E03
    |--B. chilensis E03
    |--B. diplophyllum M49
    `--B. tumida M49
  Brachiolejeunea spruceana E03
  Gottschea E03
    |--G. gayana E03
    |--G. laminigera E03
    |--G. pachyla E03
    `--G. splachnophylla E03
  Noteroclada confluens E03
  Strepsilejeunea He49
    |--S. tereticalyx Herzog 1949 He49
    `--S. warnstorffii E03
  Goebeliella cornigera [=Frullania cornigera] Ho49
  Pycnolejeunea zotovii Herzog 1949 He49
  Cuspidatula monodon M49
  Mastigolejeunea auriculata (see below for synonymy) DD07
    |--M. a. var. auriculata DD07
    `--M. a. var. ciliata (Awasthi & Udar) Daniels & Daniel 2007 (see below for synonymy) DD07

Androcryphia porphyrorrhiza Nees 1846 [=Jungermannia porphyrorrhiza Nees 1833, Noteroclada porphyrorrhiza Mitt. 1874; incl. J. confluens Hooker & Taylor 1844, Androcryphia confluens Nees 1846] E03

Blepharostoma quadripartitum (Hooker) Trevis 1877 [=Jungermannia quadripartita Hooker 1820, Temnomia quadripartita Mitt. 1877; incl. J. podophylla Ångström 1872] E03

Marsupidium crystallinum (Massal.) Besch. & Massal. 1889 [=Gymnanthe crystallina Massal. 1885; incl. Abrobolbus excisus Schiffn. in Engler & Prantl 1893] E03

Marsupidium urvilleanum (Mont.) Mitt. in Hooker 1867 [=Plagiochila urvilleana Mont. 1843, Acrobolbus urvilleanus Trevis. 1877, Gymnanthe urvilleana Taylor 1845, Jungermannia urvilleana Hooker & Taylor 1844, Scapania urvilleana Mont. 1844; incl. J. abbreviata Hooker & Taylor 1844, Plagiochila abbreviata Taylor 1847] E03

Mastigolejeunea auriculata [=Jungermannia auriculata Wilson & Hooker 1841; incl. Phragmicoma humilis Gottsche in Gottsche et al. 1845, Mastigolejeunea humilis] DD07

Mastigolejeunea auriculata var. ciliata (Awasthi & Udar) Daniels & Daniel 2007 [=M. humilis var. ciliata Awasthi & Udar 1984] DD07

Mylia abdita (Sulliv.) Evans 1903 [=Plagiochila abdita Sulliv. in Hooker 1850; incl. Leioscyphus pallens Mitt. 1877] E03

Mylia chiloscyphoideus [=Plagiochila chiloscyphoidea Lindenb. in Lehmann 1844, Leioscyphus chiloscyphoideus Mitt. 1860] E03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BO02] Barale, G., & M. Ouaja. 2002. La biodiversité végétale des gisements d’âge Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé inférieur de Merbah El Asfer (Sud-Tunisien). Cretaceous Research 23: 707-737.

[DD07] Daniels, A. E. D. & P. Daniel. 2007. Name changes in two Indian liverworts. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 231-232.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[EB01] Engel, J. J., & J. E. Braggins. 2001. Austral Hepaticae 34. The sporophyte of Neogrollea Hodgs. and the taxonomic position of Neogrolleaceae (Schust.) Engel & Braggins comb. & stat. nov. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 91: 173-204.

[E03] Evans, A. W. 1903. Hepaticae collected in southern Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 35-62. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[F01] Furuki, T. 2001. Lethocolea naruto-toganensis, a new hepatic from swamps of Japan. Bryologist 104 (2): 306-309.

[G06] Ghosh, J. P. 2006. A preliminary check-list of hepatics of West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 73-102.

[He49] Herzog, T. 1949. Descriptions of new species of New Zealand hepatics III. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 253-256.

[Ho49] Hodgson, E. A. 1949. New Zealand Hepaticae (liverworts). VI. A review of the New Zealand species of the genus Frullania. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 361-389.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. The bryophytes of Stewart Island.—Part I. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 257-277.

[P05] Pinder, A. M. 2005. A review of biodiversity in wetlands with organic sediments on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, with an emphasis on aquatic invertebrates. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (3): 129-132.

Simpson, M. G. 2010. Plant Systematics. Academic Press.

[SF01] Stech, M., & W. Frey. 2001. CpDNA-relationship and classification of the liverworts (Hepaticophytina, Bryophyta). Nova Hedwigia 72 (1-2): 45-58.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS