Field of Science

Lecanoromycetidae

Map lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum, from fir0002.


Belongs within: Lecanoromycetes.
Contains: Lecideaceae, Ectolechiaceae, Porpidiaceae, Stereocaulaceae, Teloschistales, Physciaceae, Caliciaceae, Cladoniaceae, Bacidiaceae, Parmeliaceae, Lecanoraceae, Collematineae, Peltigerineae.

The Lecanoromycetidae are a large clade of mostly lichenised fungi. Most subclades form lichens in association with green algae; species that associate with cyanobacteria are found only in the clade Peltigerales (though most species of that clade are cyanobacteria-associates). Recent authors have divided the group between the orders Lecanorales, Peltigerales and Teloschistales, but the 'Lecanorales' are most likely paraphyletic with regard to the other two orders.

Characters (from Kirk et al. 2008): Thallus very varied. Ascomata almost always apothecial, flat to strongly cup-shaped, with or without a thalline margin, rarely mazaedial. Interascal tissue of paraphyses, usually branched and swollen at apices, often with a pigmented of J+ epithecium, rarely absent. Asci typically with single wall layer visible in light microscopy but thick-walled, almost always with conspicuous thick cap-like apical part, often with complex apical structures, often J+, rarely thin-walled and evanescent. Ascospores very varied. Mainly lichen-forming (with protococcoid green or cyanobacterial photobionts), some lichenicolous or saprobes (then especially on wood in xeric conditions).

Lecanoromycetidae [Cladoniineae, Lecanorales, Lecanorineae]
    |--Porpidiaceae ML04
    `--+--+--Stereocaulaceae ML04
       |  `--+--Crocynia LK04 [Crocyniaceae]
       |     |    |--C. lanuginosa F33
       |     |    `--C. pyxinoides LK04
       |     `--Sphaerophoraceae EB03Outline
       |          |--Austropeltum EB03Outline
       |          |--Bunodophoron EB03Outline
       |          |--Leifidium EB03Outline
       |          |--Neophyllis Wilson 1891 [=Phyllis Wilson 1889 (nom. illeg.)] WA02
       |          |    |--*N. melacarpa (Wilson) Wilson 1891 (see below for synonymy) WA02
       |          |    `--N. pachyphylla (Müller) Gotth. Schneid. 1979 [=Psora pachyphylla Müller 1887] WA02
       |          `--Sphaerophorus ML04
       |               |--S. compressus D03
       |               |--S. globosus ML04
       |               `--S. tener D03
       `--+--+--+--Teloschistales ML04
          |  |  `--Caliciales ML04
          |  |       |--Physciaceae ML04
          |  |       `--Caliciaceae ML04
          |  `--+--Sporostatia LK04
          |     |    |--S. polyspora LK04
          |     |    `--S. testudinea LK04
          |     `--Rhizocarpaceae ML04
          |          |--Catolechia EB03Outline
          |          |--Epilichen EB03Outline
          |          |--Poeltinula EB03Outline
          |          `--Rhizocarpon ML04
          |               |--R. disporum (Nägeli) Müller 1853 [=Lecidea dispora Nägeli ex Hepp 1853] FC03
          |               |--R. geminatum Körb. 1855 (see below for synonymy) FC03
          |               |--R. geographicum F33
          |               `--R. lecanorinum C74
          `--+--+--+--Cladoniaceae JK06
             |  |  `--Bacidiaceae JK06
             |  `--+--Parmeliaceae JK06
             |     `--+--Lecanoraceae JK06
             |        `--Mycoblastus [Mycoblastaceae] JK06
             |             `--M. sanguinarius JK06
             `--Peltigerales ML04
                  |  i. s.: Coccocarpiaceae ML04
                  |           |--Peltularia EB03Outline
                  |           |--Spilonema EB03Outline
                  |           |--Steinera glaucella ML04
                  |           `--Coccocarpia ML04
                  |                |--C. palmicola J87
                  |                `--C. pellita J87
                  |--Collematineae ML04
                  `--Peltigerineae ML04

Lecanoromycetidae incertae sedis:
  Anzia [Anziaceae] EB03Outline
  Arthrorhaphis [Arthroraphidaceae] EB03Outline
  Biatorella [Biatorellaceae] EB03Outline
  Dactylospora [Dactylosporaceae] EB03Outline
  Gypsoplaca [Gypsoplacaceae] EB03Outline
  Haematomma [Haematommataceae] EB03Outline
  Loxospora [Loxosporaceae] EB03Outline
  Miltidea [Miltideaceae] EB03Outline
  Ophioparma [Ophioparmaceae] EB03Outline
  Pachyascus [Pachyascaceae] EB03Outline
  Cetradonia Wei & Ahti 2002 [Cetradoniaceae] WA02
    `--*C. linearis (Evans) Wei & Ahti 2002 (see below for synonymy) WA02
  Arctomiaceae EB03Outline
    |--Arctomia EB03Outline
    `--Wawea EB03Outline
  Megalariaceae EB03Outline
    |--Megalaria EB03Outline
    `--Tasmidella EB03Outline
  Candelariaceae EB03Outline
    |--Candelariella vitellina EB03Outline, C74
    |--Candelina EB03Outline
    |--Clarouxia EB03Outline
    `--Placomaronea EB03Outline
  Ramalinaceae EB03Outline
    |--Cenozosia EB03Outline
    |--Ramalinopsis EB03Outline
    |--Vermilacinia EB03Outline
    `--Ramalina EB03Outline
         |--R. lacera HP03
         |--R. peruviana J87
         `--R. shinanoana Kashiwadani 1986 S03
  Micareaceae EB03Outline
    |--Helocarpon EB03Outline
    |--Micarea EB03Outline
    |--Psilolechia EB03Outline
    `--Roccellinastrum EB03Outline
  Psoraceae EB03Outline
    |--Eremastrella EB03Outline
    |--Glyphopeltis EB03Outline
    |--Lecidoma EB03Outline
    |--Protoblastenia EB03Outline
    |--Protomicarea EB03Outline
    |--Psorula EB03Outline
    `--Psora conglomerata F33
  Catillariaceae EB03Outline
    |--Austrolecia EB03Outline
    |--Halecania EB03Outline
    |--Placolecis EB03Outline
    |--Sporastatia EB03Outline
    |--Toninia sedifolia EB03Outline, EB03Notes
    `--Xanthopsorella EB03Outline
  Pilocarpaceae EB03Outline
    |--Bapalmuia EB03Outline
    |--Felhanera EB03Outline
    |--Felhaneropsis EB03Outline
    |--Lobaca EB03Outline
    |--Byssolecania EB03Outline [incl. Dothiomyces E99]
    |    `--B. fumosonigricans [incl. *Dothiomyces xouepiae] E99
    `--Byssoloma EB03Outline [incl. Crocicreomyces E99]
         `--‘*Crocicreomyces’ guttiferae E99
  Lecideaceae EB03Outline
  Brigantiaeaceae EB03Outline
    |--Argopsis EB03Outline
    `--Brigantiaea EB03Outline
  Ectolechiaceae EB03Outline
  Psathyrophlyctis [Phlyctidaceae] EB03Outline
  Vezdaea [Vezdaeaceae] EB03Outline
  Auriculora EB03Outline
  Bartletiella EB03Outline
  Botryolepraria EB03Outline
  Bouvetiella EB03Outline
  Buelliastrum EB03Outline
  Corticifraga EB03Outline
  Corticiruptor EB03Outline
  Eschatogonia EB03Outline
  Haploloma EB03Outline
  Myxobilimbia EB03Outline
  Nimisiostella EB03Outline
  Notolecidea EB03Outline
  Piccolia EB03Outline
  Podotara EB03Outline
  Psorotichiella EB03Outline
  Ravenelula EB03Outline
  Sporacestra EB03Outline
  Stenhammarella EB03Outline
  Timdalia EB03Outline

*Cetradonia linearis (Evans) Wei & Ahti 2002 [=Cladonia linearis Evans 1947, Gymnoderma lineare (Evans) Yoshimura & Sharp 1968] WA02

*Neophyllis melacarpa (Wilson) Wilson 1891 [=Phyllis melacarpa Wilson 1891, Gymnoderma melacarpum (Wilson) Yoshimura 1973; incl. Psora dactylophylla Müller 1893, Lecidea dactylophylla (Müller) Zahlbr. 1925, Phyllopsora melanocarpa Müller 1895] WA02

Rhizocarpon geminatum Körb. 1855 [incl. Lecidea atro-alba var. concreta Acharius 1808 (nom. rej.), Catillaria concreta (Acharius) Massalongo 1852, L. confervoides var. concreta (Acharius) Schaerer 1828, Rhizocarpon concretum (Acharius) Elenkin 1904] FC03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1-299, 224 pls.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03Notes] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580-3623. Myconet 9: 91-103.

[EB03Outline] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota – 2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4, part 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

[FC03] Fryday, A. M., & B. J. Coppins. 2003. (1578) Proposal to reject the name Lecidea atro-alba var. concreta Ach. (lichenized Ascomycota, Rhizocarpaceae). Taxon 52: 351.

[HP03] Hauck, M., A. Paul, S. Gross & M. Raubuch. 2003. Manganese toxicity in epiphytic lichens: Chlorophyll degradation and interaction with iron and phosphorus. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 181-191.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, D. W. Minter & J. A. Stalpers (eds) 2008. Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446-1480.

[ML04] Miadlikowska, J., & F. Lutzoni. 2004. Phylogenetic classification of peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 449-464.

[S03] Sinha, G. P. 2003. Additions to the lichen flora of India from Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 221-224.

[WA02] Wei, J.-C., & T. Ahti. 2002. Cetradonia, a new genus in the new family Cetradoniaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota). Lichenologist 34 (1): 19-31.

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