Shells of Chilina fulgurata, from Pilsbry (1911).

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Physidae, Lymnaeinae, Amphipepleinae, Bulinidae, Planorbidae, Burnupia.

The Hygrophila are a clade of air-breathing freshwater molluscs, characterised by the presence of a post-tentacular sense organ, a diaulic genital system (with separate male and female gonoducts), and an atrium in the pallial cavity (Salvini-Plawen & Steiner 1996). Molecular phylogenies support division of the clade between two major subgroups, the Chilinoidea and Lymnaeoidea.

<==Hygrophila (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Espiphylla BR05
    |         Lomastoma BR05
    |--Chilinoidea [Chilinoidei] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Proauricula Huckriede 1967 B91
    |    |           `--*P. jaccardi (de Loriol 1865) [=Auricula jaccardi, Ellobium jaccardi] B91
    |    |--Latia Gray 1850 [Latiidae, Latiinae, Latioidea] BR05
    |    |    `--*L. neritoides Gray 1850 P61
    |    `--Chilina Gray 1828 I97 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--*C. dombeiana (Bruguière 1789) [=Bulimus dombeianus] BR17
    |         |--C. angusta (Philippi 1860) [=*Archaeochilina angusta] I97
    |         |--C. antiquata Orbigny 1842 P63
    |         |--C. aurantia Marshall 1924 RGG06
    |         |--C. fluctuosa Gray 1828 I97
    |         |--C. fluminea (Maton 1809) I97
    |         |    |--C. f. fluminea RGG06
    |         |    `--C. f. tucumanensis RGG06
    |         |--C. fulgurata Pilsbry 1911 RGG06 [incl. C. oldroydae P63]
    |         |--C. gallardoi Castellanos & Gaillard 1981 RGG06
    |         |--C. gibbosa Sowerby 1839 RGG06
    |         |--C. guaraniana Castellanos & Miquel 1980 RGG06
    |         |--C. megastoma Hylton Scott 1958 I97
    |         |--C. mendozana Strobel 1874 RGG06
    |         |--C. neuquenensis Marshal 1933 RGG06
    |         |--C. parchappii (d’Orbigny 1835) RGG06
    |         |--C. patagonica Sowerby 1874 RGG06
    |         |--C. perrieri Mabille 1833 RGG06
    |         |--C. portillensis Hidalgo 1880 RGG06
    |         |--C. rushii Pilsbry 1911 RGG06
    |         |--C. simplex P63
    |         |--C. stenostylops Parodiz 1963 P63
    |         `--C. strebeli Pilsbry 1911 RGG06
    `--Lymnaeoidea [Branchiopulmonata, Planorbacea, Planorboidea, Planorboinei] BR17
         |  i. s.: Acroloxidae [Acroloxacea, Acroloxoidea, Acroloxoinei] BR17
         |           |--Pseudancylastrum G88
         |           `--Acroloxus Beck 1838 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
         |                |--*A. lacustris (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
         |                |--A. nuttalli [=Velletia nuttalli] C64
         |                |--A. tetensi (Kuščer 1932) BV86
         |                `--A. velkovrhi (Bole 1965) BV86
         |         Clivunella Katzer 1918 BR05 [Clivunellidae BR17]
         |           `--*C. katzeri (Gorjanović-Kramberger 1906) [=Valenciennesia katzeri] BR17
         |--Physidae BR17
         `--+--Lymnaeidae [Gehydrophila, Limnacea, Limnaeana, Lymnaeoidea, Lymnidia] BR17
            |    |  i. s.: Austropeplea Cotton 1942 KKW12
            |    |           |--A. lessoni (Deshayes 1830) [=Limnaea lessoni] KKW12
            |    |           `--A. tomentosa KKW12
            |    |         Simlimnea Iredale 1943 P61
            |    |           |--*S. brazieri [=Limnaea brazieri] P61
            |    |           `--S. tomentosa (Pfeiffer 1855) (see below for synonymy) P61
            |    |                |--S. t. tomentosa P61
            |    |                `--S. t. waikariensis (Cumber 1941) P61
            |    |         Undulotheca G88
            |    |         Velutinopsis G88
            |    |         Provalenciennesia G88
            |    |         Stagnicola G40
            |    |           |--S. bulimoides B63 [=Limnaea (Limnophysa) bulimoides C64, Lymnaea bulimoides PF15]
            |    |           |    |--S. b. bulimoides PF15
            |    |           |    |--‘Lymnaea’ b. cockerelli PF15
            |    |           |    `--S. b. techella [=Lymnaea (Stagnicola) bulimoides techella] B63
            |    |           |--S. caperata (Say 1829) P88
            |    |           |--S. catascopium (Say 1817) P88
            |    |           |--S. glabra (see below for synonymy) G40
            |    |           |--S. jacksonensis B65
            |    |           `--S. reflexa (Say 1821) P88
            |    |--Lymnaeinae BR05
            |    |--Amphipepleinae BR17
            |    `--Lancinae [Lancidae] BR05
            |         |--Fisherola G88
            |         `--Lanx Clessin 1880 BR05
            |              |--*L. patelloides (Lea 1856) [=Ancylus patelloides] BR17
            |              |--L. nevadensis G88
            |              `--L. undulatus (Meek 1870) TTE93
            `--+--+--Bulinidae BR17
               |  `--Planorbidae BR17
               `--Burnupia BR17

Nomen nudum: Acroloxus vruljae Bole & Velkovrh 1986 BV86

Acroloxus Beck 1838 BR05 [=Calytra Westerlund 1885 PB27, Helicon Westerlund 1885 PB27; Acroloxinae]

*Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Patella lacustris BR17, Ancylus lacustris PB27, *Calytra lacustris PB27, Crepidula lacustris G40, *Helicon lacustris PB27, Velletia lacustris G40; incl. Patella oblonga G40, Crepidula oblonga G40]

Chilina Gray 1828 I97 [incl. Acyrogonia Rochebrune & Mabille 1889 P63, Archaeochilina Valdovinos & Stuardo 1995 I97, Pseudochilina Dall 1870 P63; Chilinidae S-PS96, Chilininae]

Hygrophila [Limnaeida, Limnaeidae, Limnostreae, Lymnaeida, Lymnaeiformes, Lymnaeiformii, Lymnaeoidei, Lymnaeoinei, Lymnostreae]

Simlimnea tomentosa (Pfeiffer 1855) [incl. Myxas ampulla, M. arguta, M. ampulla globosa, Limnaea leptosoma] P61

Stagnicola glabra [=Buccinum glabrum, Limnaeus (Stagnicola) glaber; incl. Bulimus leucostoma, Lymnaea leucostoma, Helix octanfracta, Stagnicola octanfracta] G40

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B91] Bandel, K. 1991. Gastropods from brackish and fresh water of the Jurassic–Cretaceous transition (a systematic reevaluation). Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe A 134: 9–55.

[B65] Beetle, D. E. 1965. Molluscan fauna of some small ponds in Grand Teton National Park. Nautilus 78 (4): 125–130.

[BV86] Bole, J., & F. Velkovrh. 1986. Mollusca from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 177–208. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[B63] Branson, B. A. 1963. Notes on snail distribution and leech feeding habits in Oklahoma. Nautilus 76 (4): 148–149.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[I97] Ituarte, C. F. 1997. Chilina megastoma Hylton Scott, 1958 (Pulmonata: Basommatophora): a study on topotypic specimens. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 9–15.

[KKW12] Köhler, F., V. Kessner & C. Whisson. 2012. New records of non-marine, non-camaenid gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from islands off the Kimberley coast, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 21–39.

[P63] Parodiz, J. J. 1963. New fresh-water Mollusca from the Eogene of Chile and Patagonia. Nautilus 76 (4): 145–148.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PF15] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. H. Ferriss. 1915. Mollusca of the southwestern states, VII: the Dragoon, Mule, Santa Rita, Baboquivari, and Tucson Ranges, Arizona. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 363–418, pls 8–15.

[P88] Pip, E. 1988. Niche congruency of freshwater gastropods in central North America with respect to six water chemistry parameters. Nautilus 102 (2): 65–72.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RGG06] Rumi, A., D. E. Gutiérrez Gregoric, V. Núñez, I. I. César, M. A. Roche, M. P. Tassara, S. M. Martín & M. F. López Armengol. 2006. Freshwater Gastropoda from Argentina: species richness, distribution patterns, and an evaluation of endangered species. Malacologia 49 (1): 189–208.

[S-PS96] Salvini-Plawen, L. v., & G. Steiner. 1996. Synapomorphies and plesiomorphies in higher classification of Mollusca. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 29–51. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 19 February 2022.

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