Caperbush Capparis spinosa, copyright Joan Simon.

Belongs within: Brassicales.

The Capparaceae are a group of trees, shrubs and herbs, often with spiny stipules on the leaves, found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Harden 1990).

Characters (from Harden 1990): Herbs, climbers, shrubs or trees, glabrous or hairy. Leaves alternate, compound or simple and entire to deeply dissected; juvenile leaves often different from the adult foliage; mostly petiolate; stipules usually spiny, sometimes minute or absent. Inflorescence terminal or lateral, racemose or flowers solitary. Flowers usually actinomorphic, bisexual. Sepals mostly 4 in two whorls, the outer 2 free or fused, the inner 2 free. Petals usually 4, equal, free. Stamens 1-many, free or sometimes fused to the gynophore; anthers 2-locular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Disc sometimes present between stamens and ovary. Ovary superior, 2-6-carpellate, 1-3-locular, usually on a gynophore, sometimes sessile; ovules 1-many; stigma more or less sessile. Fruit usually a stalked capsule or berry; 1-many-seeded.

<==Capparaceae [Capparidaceae, Capparoideae]
    |--Haptocarpum YY22
    |--Apophyllum anomalum B00
    |--Cercopetalum YY22
    |--Maerua oblongifolia PP07
    |--Poilanedora APG16
    |--Dipterygium T00
    |--Capparites cynphylloides CBH93
    |--Bachmannia Pax 1897 KC01
    |--Keithia Spreng. 1822 KC01
    |--Cadaba LK14
    |    |--C. capparoides LK14
    |    `--C. fruticosa PP07
    |--Crataeva K06
    |    |--C. magna BB07
    |    |--C. religiosa B00
    |    `--C. tapia K06
    `--Capparis RF03
         |--C. aegyptia de Lamarck 1785 [incl. C. spinosa var. aravensis, C. sinaica Veillard in Duhamel 1801] RF03
         |--C. arborea B00
         |--C. atamisquea RJ11
         |--C. canescens B00
         |--C. cartilaginea Decaisne 1835 (nom. cons.) [incl. C. galeata Fresenius 1837, C. inermis Forsskål 1775] RF03
         |--C. dahi Forsskål 1775 RF03
         |--C. decidua PP07
         |--C. flexuosa WM09
         |--C. jacobsii B12
         |--C. lasiantha LK14
         |--C. loranthifolia H90
         |--C. lucida LK14
         |--C. mitchellii LK14
         |--C. nobilis B00
         |--C. pittieiri OV97
         |--C. quiniflora LK14
         |--C. sarmentosa H90
         |--C. sepiaria LK14
         |--C. spinosa RF03
         |    |--C. s. var. spinosa LK14
         |    `--C. s. var. nummularia LK14
         |--C. umbonata B12
         |--C. verrucosa BTA75
         `--C. zeylanica P03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 121–154.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OV97] Ochoa, R., C. Vargas, D. E. Walter & B. M. OConnor. 1997. Two new species of the genus Ceratotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae). International Journal of Acarology 23 (3): 177–183.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[RF03] Rivera, D., I. Friis, C. Inocencio, C. Obón, F. Alcaraz & A. Reales. 2003. The typification of Capparis inermis Forssk., C. sinaica Veill. and C. cartilaginea Decne. (Capparaceae). Taxon 52: 307–311.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS