Ringicula auriculata, copyright H. Zell.

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Doridina, Aeolidacea, Dendronotina, Arminina.

The Ringipleura are a clade of marine molluscs supported by molecular data including the nudibranch sea slugs and related taxa. The basal Ringiculidae retain an external shell whereas members of the clade Nudipleura are shell-less. Ringiculid shells are solid and moderately high-spired with heavy spiral sculpture, a thick outer lip and strong folds on the columella. Within the Nudipleura, the Pleurobranchoidea have the external gill located on the right side of the body whereas that of the Nudibranchia is located dorsally.

<==Ringipleura BR17
    |--Ringiculidae [Ringiculacea, Ringiculida, Ringiculimorpha, Ringiculoidea] BR17
    |    |--Cinulia globulosa TTE93
    |    |--Ringinella albensis (Orbigny 1842) TTE93
    |    |--Avellana d’Orbigny 1843 [Avellaninae] BR05
    |    |    `--*A. avellana (Brongniart 1822) [=Cassis avellana] BR17
    |    |--Eriptycha Meek 1876 S98
    |    |    |--*E. decurtata (Sowerby 1831) [=Auricula decurtata] S98
    |    |    |--E. punamutica Wilckens 1922 [=Biplica punamutica] S98
    |    |    `--E. ringens (Orbigny 1842) TTE93
    |    `--Ringicula Deshayes 1838 [Ringiculinae] BR05
    |         |--*R. auriculata (Ménard de la Groye 1811) [=Marginella auriculata] BR17
    |         |--R. abyssicola Brazier 1877 H09
    |         |--R. arctata Gould 1860 H09
    |         |--R. assularum Watson 1883 H09
    |         |--R. caron Hinds 1844 H09
    |         |--R. delecta Murdoch & Suter 1906 P61
    |         |--R. lactea [incl. Pyramidella sulcata Johnston 1880 non Adams 1855] F27
    |         |--R. pusilla Watson 1883 H09
    |         |--R. ringens [=Auricula ringens] P61
    |         |--R. torquata Marwick 1926 F27
    |         `--R. uniplicata F27
    `--Nudipleura BR17
         |--Nudibranchia (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |    |  i. s.: Trapania HS01
         |    |           |--T. fusca PP64
         |    |           `--T. rudmani HS01
         |    |--Doridina BR05
         |    `--Cladobranchia (see below for synonymy) BR17
         |         |  i. s.: Goniaeolis Sars 1861 [Goniaeolididae] BR05
         |         |           `--*G. typica Sars 1861 BR17
         |         |         Hero Lovén 1855 BR05, BR17 [Heroacea, Heroidae, Heroinae] BR05
         |         |           `--*H. formosa (Lovén 1844) [=Cloelia formosa] BR17
         |         |         Bonisa nakaza Gosliner 1981 KM17
         |         |         Doridoxa Bergh 1899 BR05 [Doridoxida, Doridoxidae, Doridoxoidea BR17, Pseudoeuctenidiacea]
         |         |           `--*D. ingolfiana Bergh 1899 BR17
         |         |         Laniogerus blainvillii G20
         |         |--Aeolidacea BR05
         |         |--Dendronotina H01
         |         `--Arminina H01
         `--Pleurobranchoidea [Pleurobranchida, Pleurobranchomorpha, Subaplysiacea] BR17
              |--Quijote Ortea, Moro & Bacallado 2016 [Quijotidae] BR17
              |    `--*Q. cervantesi Ortea, Moro & Bacallado 2016 BR17
              |--Pleurobranchaea Leue 1813 [Pleurobranchaeidae, Pleurobranchaeinae] BR17
              |    |--*P. meckeli (Blainville 1825) [=Pleurobranchidium meckeli] BR17
              |    |--P. californica (MacFarland 1966) RD77
              |    |--P. maculata (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) P61
              |    |--P. novaezelandiae Cheeseman 1878 P61
              |    |    |--P. n. novaezelandiae P61
              |    |    `--P. n. granulosa Berg 1900 P61
              |    `--P. tarda B26
              `--Pleurobranchidae [Pleurobranchinae] BR05
                   |--Berthellina citrina (Rüppell & Leuckart 1828) BW09
                   |--Bathyberthella Willan 1983 [Bathyberthellini] BR05
                   |    `--*B. zelandiae Willan 1983 BR17
                   |--Berthella Blainville 1824 [Berthellinae, Berthellini] BR05
                   |    `--*B. plumula (Montagu 1803) [=Bulla plumula] BR17
                   |--Bouvieria Vayssiere 1896 P61
                   |    |--*B. aurantiaca (Risso 1818) [=Pleurobranchus aurantiacus] P61
                   |    `--B. ornata (Cheeseman 1878) P61
                   `--Pleurobranchus Cuvier 1804 [Pleurobrancheae, Pleurobranchini] BR05
                        |--*P. peronii Cuvier 1804 BR17
                        |--P. areolatus (Mörch 1863) PP78
                        |--P. californicus Dall 1900 O27
                        `--P. forskalii (Ruppell & Leuckart 1828) BW09

Cladobranchia [Abranchia, Actenidiacea, Archidexia, Cerabranchia, Ceratobranchia, Ceratonota, Cladohepatica, Dexiarchia, Dexioprocta, Exotenobranchia, Heterohepatica, Inferobranchia, Inferobranchiata, Leptognatha, Papillifera, Polybranchia] BR05

Nudibranchia [Bifaribranchiata, Gnathodoridacea, Gnathodoridoidea, Gymnobranchia, Gymnobranchiata, Hypobranchia, Hypobranchiata, Nudibranchi, Superobranchiata, Tergibranchiata, Tergobranchiata] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[KM17] Korshunova, T., A. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, I. W. Mudianta, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl & B. Picton. 2017. Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). ZooKeys 717: 1–139.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RD77] Ram, J. L., & W. J. Davis. 1977. Mechanisms underlying "singleness of action" in the feeding behavior of Pleurobranchaea californica (MacFarland, 1966). Veliger 20 (1): 55–56.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 11 September 2021.

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