West Indian green chiton Chiton tuberculatus, copyright James St. John.

Belongs within: Ischnochitonina.

The Chitonidae are a group of chitons characterised by the presence of well-developed pectination on the outside of the insertion plates (Smith 1960).

Characters (from Smith 1960): Small to large chitons with sculpture of tegmentum varying considerably in strength and character; articulamentum consisting of strong insertion plates and sutural laminae. Outside of insertion plates with well-developed pectination which ranges from coarsely grooved to fine and comb-like. Girdle may be scaly, with short bristles, spines, or spicules, or nude and leathery.

<==Chitonidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Enoplochiton Gray 1847 SF77
    |    `--*E. niger (Barnes 1824) S60 [=Chiton niger SF77]
    |--Lucilina Dall 1882 (see below for synonymy) S60
    |    |--*L. confossa (Gould 1846) S60 [=Chiton confossus S60, Tonicia confossa H09]
    |    `--L. lamellosa (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) BW09
    |--Amaurochiton Thiele 1893 P61 [incl. Poeciloplax Thiele 1893 S60]
    |    |--A. magnificus (Deshayes 1827) S60, SF77 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--A. glaucus (Gray 1828) P61
    |--Sypharochiton Thiele 1893 P61 [=Sympharochiton (l. c.) S60; incl. Triboplax Thiele 1893 S60]
    |    |--*S. pelliserpentis (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) [=Chiton pelliserpentis] P61
    |    |--S. sinclairi (Gray 1843) P61
    |    `--S. torri (Suter 1907) P61
    |--Liolophura Pilsbry 1893 [=Liolopleura (l. c.); incl. Clavarizona Hull 1923] S60
    |    |--*L. japonica (Lischke 1873) [=Chiton japonicus] S60
    |    |--L. curtisiana (Smith 1884) [=Chiton curtisianus] H09
    |    |--‘Clavarizona’ hirtosa M54
    |    `--L. gaimardi [incl. L. gaimardi var. queenslandica Pilsbry 1894] H09
    |--Onithochiton Gray 1847 P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--O. neglectus Rochebrune 1881 P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--‘Mopalia’ australis Suter 1907 P61
    |    |--O. lyellii (Sowerby 1832) [=Chiton lyellii] H09
    |    |--O. marmoratus Wissel 1904 P61
    |    |--O. opiniosus Iredale & Hull 1932 P61
    |    `--O. subantarcticus Suter 1907 P61 [=O. neglectus var. subantarcticus F27]
    |--Tonicia Gray 1847 SF77 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*T. elegans (Frembly 1827) [=Chiton elegans] S60
    |    |--T. forbesii Carpenter 1857 [incl. T. crenulata (Broderip 1832) non Chiton crenulatus Risso 1826] SF77
    |    |    |--T. f. forbesii SF77
    |    |    `--T. f. arnheimi Dall 1903 SF77
    |    |--T. fortilirata (Reeve 1847) [=Chiton fortiliratus] H09
    |    |--T. lineata C64
    |    |--T. lineolata C64
    |    |--T. picta (Reeve 1847) [=Chiton pictus] H09
    |    |--T. pustulifera Dall 1919 O27
    |    `--T. submarmorea [=Chiton submarmoreus] C64
    `--Chiton Linnaeus 1758 SF77 (see below for synonymy)
         |  i. s.: C. alveolus Sars in Lovén 1846 N79
         |         C. cancellatus N79
         |         C. caribeorum G79
         |         C. dispar [incl. Lepidopleurus adamsii] C64
         |         C. eschscholtzii Middendorff 1847 C64
         |         C. glaucus HS01
         |         C. granosus VN05
         |         C. hispidus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         C. latus Sowerby 1825 SF77
         |         C. lividus Middendorff 1847 C64
         |         C. marmoratus G79
         |         C. mendicarius Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
         |         C. olivaceus Spengler 1797 RP07
         |         C. platei Thiele 1910 BD86
         |         C. pulcherrimus Sowerby 1841 H09
         |         C. punctatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         C. sanguineus C64
         |         C. scrobiculatus Middendorff 1847 C64
         |         C. segmentatus [incl. Chaetopleura apparata, Cha. rufocostata] G79
         |         C. sitchensis Middendorff 1847 C64
         |         C. squamosus G20
         |--C. (Chiton) S60
         |    |--*C. (C.) tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 S60
         |    |--C. (C.) albolineatus S60
         |    |--C. (C.) berryi Smith et al. 1968 BE93
         |    |--C. (C.) cretaceus Berry 1940 BE93
         |    `--C. (C.) stokesii Broderip 1832 EO64, SF77 [=Lophyrus stokesii C64]
         |--C. (Anthochiton Thiele 1893) S60, P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--C. (*A.) tulipa VWR04, P61
         |    |--‘Anthochiton’ aereus (Reeve 1847) P61 [=Rhyssoplax aerea F27; incl. R. oliveri Mestayer 1921 F27]
         |    |--‘Anthochiton’ canaliculatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) P61 [=Rhyssoplax canaliculata F27]
         |    |--‘Anthochiton’ clavatus (Suter 1907) P61
         |    |--‘Anthochiton’ huttoni (Suter 1906) P61 [=Rhyssoplax huttoni F27]
         |    |--‘C. (*Rhyssoplax) janierensis Gray 1821 S60
         |    |--‘Rhyssoplax’ limans F27
         |    |--C. (A.) macdonaldensis [=C. (Rhyssoplax) macdonaldensis] S60
         |    |--‘C. (Rhyssoplax)’ relatus S60
         |    |--‘Anthochiton’ stangeri (Reeve 1847) P61 [=Rhyssoplax stangeri HS01]
         |    `--‘Anthochiton’ suteri (Iredale 1910) P61
         |--C. (Delicatoplax Iredale & Hull 1926) S60
         |    `--C. (*D.) translucens Hedley & Hull 1909 S60 [=Rhyssoplax translucens F27]
         |--C. (Mucrosquama Iredale & Hull 1926) S60
         |    `--C. (*M.) carnosus Angas 1867 S60
         |--C. (Radsia Gray 1847) SF77, S60
         |    |--C. (R.) goodalli Broderip in Broderip & Sowerby 1832 (see below for synonymy) SF77
         |    `--C. (R.) sulcatus Wood 1815 [=Lophyrus sulcatus] SF77
         |--C. (Squamopleura Nierstrasz 1905) (see below for synonymy) S60
         |    `--C. (*S.) miles Carpenter in Pilsbry 1893 S60
         `--C. (Tegulaplax Iredale & Hull 1926) S60
              `--C. (*T.) howensis Hedley & Hull 1912 S60

Amaurochiton magnificus (Deshayes 1827) S60, SF77 [=Chiton magnificus S60; incl. C. olivaceus Frembly 1827 non Spengler 1797 S60, *Amaurochiton olivaceus P61]

Chiton Linnaeus 1758 SF77 [incl. Chondroplax Thiele 1893 S60, Diochiton Thiele 1893 S60, Georgus Thiele 1893 S60, Gymnoplax Gray 1821 S60, Lophyrus Poli 1791 S60, Scuterigulus Meuschen 1787 S60, Trachyodon Dall 1892 S60, Typhlochiton Dall 1921 S60]

Chiton (Anthochiton Thiele 1893) S60, P61 [incl. Rhyssoplax Thiele 1893 P61, Clathropleura Thiele 1893 non Tiberi 1877 S60]

Chiton (Radsia) goodalli Broderip in Broderip & Sowerby 1832 [=Lophyrus goodalli; incl. C. (R.) chierchiae Nierstrasz 1908] SF77

Chiton (Squamopleura Nierstrasz 1905) [incl. Sclerochiton Carpenter in Dall 1882 non Kraatz 1859, Sklerochiton (l. c.), Slerochiton (l. c.)] S60

Chitonidae [Amaurochitoninae, Chitonacea, Chitones, Chitonia, Chitonina, Chitoninae, Gymnoplacidae, Liolophurinae, Lophyridae, Ornithochitoninae, Rhyssoplacinae, Sypharochitoninae, Toniciinae, Tonicinae]

Lucilina Dall 1882 [incl. Lucia Gould 1862 non Swainson 1833, Onithoplax Thiele 1910, Toniciopsis Thiele 1893] S60

Onithochiton Gray 1847 P61 [=Onitochiton (l. c.) S60, Onythochiton (l. c.) S60, Ornithochiton (l. c.) S60; incl. Onithella Mackay 1933 S60, Pristochiton Clessin 1903 S60]

Onithochiton neglectus Rochebrune 1881 P61 [incl. Chiton undulatus Quoy & Gaimard 1835 non Wood 1828 S60, *O. undulatus P61]

Tonicia Gray 1847 SF77 [=Tonichia Gray 1840 (n. n.) S60, Conicia (l. c.) S60, Tonica (l. c.) S60, Tonicea (l. c.) S60; incl. Fannettia Dall 1882 S60, Fannia Dall 1882 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 S60, Fannyia Gray 1857 S60]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BE93] Benton, M. J., & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Amphineura and ‘Monoplacophora’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 125–130. Chapman & Hall: London.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[EO64] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1964. Additional records from Cocos Island. Nautilus 77 (3): 90–92.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[S60] Smith, A. G. 1960. Amphineura. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I41–I76. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[SF77] Smith, A. G., & A. J. Ferreira. 1977. Chiton fauna of the Galápagos Islands. Veliger 20 (2): 82–97.

[VWR04] Vendrasco, M. J., T. E. Wood & B. N. Runnegar. 2004. Articulated Palaeozoic fossil with 17 plates greatly expands disparity of early chitons. Nature 429: 288–291.

[VN05] Vinther, J., & C. Nielsen. 2005. The Early Cambrian Halkieria is a mollusc. Zoologica Scripta 34: 81–89.

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