Limacoidei

Pink glass snail Nitor pudibunda, copyright Ken Walker.


Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Pristilomatidae, Oxychilidae, Gastrodontidae, Agriolimacidae, Vitrinidae, Limacinae, Chronidae, Trochomorphidae, Euconulinae, Liardetiini, Ostracolethinae, Macrochlamydinae, Ariophantinae, Thapsia, Sheldoniinae, Urocyclinae, Fastosarion, Durgellinae, Helicarion.

The Limacoidei, sometimes referred to as the 'limacoid clade' or Limacoidea sensu lato, are a group of terrestrial gastropods characterised by a radula bearing elongate marginal teeth without entocones. This modification of the radula may represent an adaptation to an omnivorous diet. Members of the clade include the Limacoidea, a group of slugs and semislugs found in more humid biotopes. The Gastrodontoidea are a group of mostly small snails, characterised by reductions in the stimulators and lung venation. The Helicarionidae are a family of herbivorous snails found on Southern Hemisphere landmasses, mostly in rainforests.

See also: Wild slug chases (Taxon of the Week: Gastrodontoidea).

<==Limacoidei [Limacacea, Limaxina, Zonitinia] BR17
    |--Gastrodontoidea BR17
    |    |--Pristilomatidae BR17
    |    |--Oxychilidae BR17
    |    `--Gastrodontidae SS10
    |--Parmacelloidea BR05
    |    |--Parmacellidae BR05
    |    |    |--Parmacella Cuvier 1805 [Parmacellinae] BR05
    |    |    |    |--*P. olivieri Cuvier 1805 BR17
    |    |    |    `--P. sayni E99
    |    |    `--Cryptella Webb & Berthelot 1833 [Cryptelladae, Cryptellidae] BR05
    |    |         `--*C. canariensis Webb & Berthelot 1833 BR17
    |    |--Trigonochlamydidae [Trigonochlamydinia, Trigonochlamydoidea] BR05
    |    |    |--Parmacellilla Simroth 1910 [Parmacellillinae] BR05
    |    |    |    `--*P. filipowitschi Simroth 1910 BR17
    |    |    `--Trigonochlamys Boettger 1881 [Trigonochlamydina, Trigonochlamydinae] BR05
    |    |         `--*T. imitatrix Boettger 1881 BR17
    |    `--Milacidae BR17
    |         |--Tandonia rustica (Millet 1843) HM07
    |         `--Milax Gray 1855 [Milacinae] SS10
    |              |--*M. gagates (Draparnaud 1801) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |              |--M. budapestensis (Hazay 1881) FOS84
    |              |--M. gracilis T84
    |              |--M. latus (Edwards 1852) TTE93
    |              `--M. sowerbyi (Férussac 1823) FOS84
    |--Limacoidea [Aceratophora, Limaxinia] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Grandipatula Cossmann 1889 [Grandipatulidae, Grandipatulinae] BR05
    |    |           |--*G. (Grandipatula) hemisphaerica (Michaud 1837) [=Helix hemisphaerica] BR17
    |    |           `--G. (Sphaerozonites) oppenheimi (Pfeffer 1929) TTE93
    |    |         Palaeoxestina Wenz 1919 [Palaeoxestinidae, Palaeoxestininae] BR05
    |    |           `--*P. occlusa (Edwards 1852) [=Helix occlusa] BR17
    |    |         Rhysota BR17
    |    |--Agriolimacidae SS10
    |    |--Vitrinidae BR05
    |    |--Boettgerilla Simroth 1910 [Boettgerillidae] BR05
    |    |    `--*B. compressa Simroth 1910 BR17
    |    `--Limacidae [Limacidia, Limacina, Limaxia] SS10
    |         |  i. s.: Malacolimax tenellus (Müller 1774) HM07
    |         |         Lehmannia Heynemann 1862 SS10
    |         |           |--*L. marginata (Müller 1774) [=Limax marginata] SS10
    |         |           |--L. nyctelia (Bourguignat 1861) [=Limax nyctelius; incl. Li. legrandi Tate 1881] RAS75
    |         |           `--L. valentiana (Férussac 1823) SS10
    |         |         Limacus Lehmann 1864 SS10
    |         |           `--L. flavus (Linnaeus 1758) SS10 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--Limacinae BR05
    |         `--Eumilax Boettger 1881 [Eumilacinae] BR05
    |              `--*E. brandti (Martens 1880) [=Limax brandti] BR17
    |--Zonitidae [Ceratophora, Zonitacea, Zonitinae, Zonitini, Zonitoidea] BR17
    |    |--Thomeonanina PB27
    |    |--Kerkophorus PB27
    |    |--Microkerkus PB27
    |    |--Suterella Iredale 1915 P61
    |    |    `--*S. novarae (Pfeiffer 1862) [=Helix novarae] P61
    |    |--Hawaiia Gude 1911 BP90 [incl. Johannesoconcha Preston 1913 SS10, Magillivrayella Preston 1913 SS10]
    |    |    `--H. minuscula (Binney 1840) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |    |--Vitrinizonites Binney 1879 BP90
    |    |    `--V. latissimus BP90
    |    |--Zonites Montfort 1810 BR05
    |    |    |--*Z. algirus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Helix algirus] BR17
    |    |    `--Z. helmsi Hutton 1883 H15
    |    |--Pilsbryna Baker 1926 BP90
    |    |    |--P. aurea BP90
    |    |    `--P. castanea BP90
    |    |--Nesovitrea Cooke 1921 BP90
    |    |    |--N. binneyana BP90
    |    |    |--N. electrina BP90
    |    |    `--N. hammonis V09
    |    |--Mesomphix Rafinesque 1819 BP90
    |    |    `--M. cupreus BP90
    |    |         |--M. c. cupreus BP90
    |    |         `--M. c. politus BP90
    |    |--Retinella BP90
    |    |    |--R. burringtoni G59
    |    |    |--R. indentata G59
    |    |    `--R. rhoadsi G59
    |    |--Ventridens Binney 1863 TMT96, BP90
    |    |    |--V. acerra (Lewis 1875) TMT96
    |    |    |--V. lens (Gabb 1864) TTE93
    |    |    |--V. ligera G59
    |    |    `--V. suppressus [=Zonitoides (Ventridens) suppressus] BP90
    |    |--Paravitrea Pilsbry 1898 BP90
    |    |    |--P. capsella BP90
    |    |    |--P. multidentata BP90
    |    |    |--P. petrophila BP90
    |    |    `--P. simpsoni (Pilsbry 1889) NC01
    |    |--Striatura Morse 1864 BP90
    |    |    |--S. exigua BP90
    |    |    |--S. ferrea BP90
    |    |    `--S. millium PF15
    |    |         |--S. m. millium PF15
    |    |         `--S. m. meridionalis PF15
    |    `--Glyphyalinia Martens 1892 BP90
    |         |--G. clingmani BP90
    |         |--G. indentata BP90
    |         |    |--G. i. indentata BP90
    |         |    `--G. i. paucilirata BP90
    |         |--G. raderi BP90
    |         |--G. rhoadsi BP90
    |         `--G. virginica BP90
    |--Trochomorphoidea BR17
    |    |--Chronidae BR17
    |    |--Trochomorphidae SS10
    |    |--Staffordia Godwin-Austen 1907 [Staffordiidae, Staffordiinae, Staffordioidea] BR05
    |    |    `--*S. daflaensis (Godwin-Austen 1883) [=Macrochlamys daflaensis] BR17
    |    |--Dyakiidae [Dyakioidea] BR17
    |    |    |--Dyakia Godwin-Austen 1891 [Dyakiinae, Dyakiini, Dyakinae] BR05
    |    |    |    `--*D. hugonis (Pfeiffer 1863) [=Helix hugonis] BR17
    |    |    |--Sasakina Rensch 1930 [=Sasakia Rensch 1930 non Moore 1896; Sasakinae, Sasakininae] BR05
    |    |    |    `--*S. oxyconus (Martens 1896) [=Trochonanina oxyconus, *Sasakia oxyconus] BR17
    |    |    `--Pseudoplecta Laidlaw 1932 [Pseudoplectinae] BR05
    |    |         `--*P. bijuga (Stoliczka 1873) [=Rotula bijuga] BR17
    |    `--Euconulidae BR17
    |         |  i. s.: Afroguppya FGN07
    |         |         Conibycus Thiele 1928 S88
    |         |         Microcystina calcarata Hedley 1891 S88
    |         |         Dryachloa Thompson & Lee 1980 BP90
    |         |           `--D. dauca BP90
    |         |         Guppya Mörch 1867 BP90
    |         |           `--G. gundlachi BP90
    |         |         Turrisitala Iredale 1933 SS10
    |         |           `--*T. normalis Iredale 1933 [incl. Helix turriculata Cox 1868, T. wildiana Iredale 1937] SS10
    |         |         Queridomus Iredale 1937 SS10
    |         |           `--*Q. grenvillei (Brazier 1876) [=Helix (Conulus) grenvillei] SS10
    |         |--Euconulinae BR17
    |         `--Microcystinae [Microcysti, Microcystidae] BR17
    |              |  i. s.: Innesoconcha Iredale 1944 SS10
    |              |           |--*I. catletti (Brazier 1872) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |              |           `--I. princeps Iredale 1944 SS10
    |              |         Melloconcha Iredale 1944 [incl. Tribocystis Iredale 1944] SS10
    |              |           |--*M. delecta Iredale 1944 SS10
    |              |           |--M. flavescens (Iredale 1944) SS10
    |              |           `--M. rosacea (Iredale 1944) [incl. Tribocystis alma Iredale 1944] SS10
    |              |         Allenoconcha Preston 1913 SS10
    |              |           `--*A. basispiralis Preston 1913 (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |              |         Fanulena Iredale 1945 (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |              |           `--*F. insculpta (Pfeiffer 1846) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |              |         Greenwoodoconcha Preston 1913 SS10
    |              |           `--*G. nux (Sykes 1900) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |              |         Mathewsoconcha Preston 1913 [incl. Belloconcha Preston 1913] SS10
    |              |           `--M. suteri (Sykes 1900) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |              |         Quintalia Preston 1913 SS10
    |              |           `--*Q. stoddartii (Gray 1834) [=Carocolla stoddartii] SS10
    |              |         Roybellia Preston 1913 SS10
    |              |           `--*R. platysoma (Sykes 1900) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |              |         Wilhelminaia Preston 1913 SS10
    |              |           `--*W. mathildae Preston 1913 SS10
    |              |--Liardetiini BR05
    |              |--Microcystis Beck 1837 non Kutzing 1833 (ICBN) [Microcystini] BR05
    |              |    `--*M. pellicula (Férussac 1821) [=Helicolimax pellicula] BR17
    |              `--Philonesia Sykes 1900 [Philonesiae, Philonesiini] BR05
    |                   `--*P. baldwini (Ancey 1889) [=Microcystis baldwini] BR17
    `--Helicarionoidea [Helicarionacea] BR17
         |--Ariophantidae [Ariophantacea, Helicophantidae] BR17
         |    |--Ostracolethinae BR05
         |    |--Macrochlamydinae BR05
         |    `--Ariophantinae BR05
         |--Urocyclidae BR17
         |    |  i. s.: Gudeella FGN07
         |    |         Teleozonites adansoniae (Morelet 1848) FGN07
         |    |         Hamya revoili Bourguignat 1885 TTE93
         |    |         Aspidelus PB27
         |    |         Thapsia FGN07
         |    |--Sheldoniinae BR05
         |    |--Urocyclinae BR05
         |    `--Rhysotina Ancey 1887 BR05 [Rhysotinidae BR17]
         |         `--*R. welwitschi (Morelet 1866) [=Helix welwitschi] BR17
         `--Helicarionidae [Helixarionidae] SS10
              |  i. s.: Thularion Stanisic 1993 S95
              |           `--*T. semoni (Martens 1894) SS10
              |         Eungarion Stanisic 1993 S95
              |           `--*E. mcdonaldi Stanisic 1993 S95
              |         Fastosarion S95
              |         Tarocystis Iredale 1937 SS10
              |           |--*T. responsiva (Hedley 1912) [=Microcystis responsivus] SS10
              |           |--T. coen Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--T. greenvale Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--T. kinrara Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--T. megaspira Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--T. toomba Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--T. townsville Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--T. tropica Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Mysticarion Iredale 1941 SS10
              |           |--*M. insuetus Iredale 1941 [=M. leucospira insuetus] SS10
              |           |--M. hyalinus (Pfeiffer 1855) SS10
              |           `--M. porrectus (Iredale 1941) SS10
              |         Parmacochlea Smith 1884 SS10
              |           |--*P. fischeri Smith 1884 [incl. P. smithi Simroth 1898] SS10
              |           `--P. ferrea Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Peloparion Iredale 1937 SS10
              |           |--*P. helenae (Godwin-Austen 1883) (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |           `--P. iridis Hyman 2007 SS10
              |         Brevisentis Hyman 2007 SS10
              |           |--*B. jacksoniensis (Gray 1834) (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |           |--B. atratus Hyman 2007 SS10
              |           `--B. kaputarensis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Sheaia Hyman 2007 SS10
              |           `--*S. glenrockensis Hyman 2007 SS10
              |         Levidens Hyman 2007 SS10
              |           `--*L. ponderi Hyman 2007 SS10
              |         Sigaloeista Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--*S. orara Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--S. bordaensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--S. rubra Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Dendronitor Iredale 1933 SS10
              |           `--*D. inscensa (Hedley 1912) [=Microcystis inscensa] SS10
              |         Delinitesta Iredale 1933 SS10
              |           `--*D. gayndahensis (Brazier 1875) [=Helix (Thalassia) gayndahensis] SS10
              |         Burnettia Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--*B. subglobosa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--B. bavinsae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |          Eddiella Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--*E. ingrami Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--E. mcilwraith Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--E. nana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--E. proserpiniana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Expocystis Iredale 1937 SS10
              |           |--*E. rustica (Pfeiffer 1852) (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |           `--E. herveyensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Einasleighana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--*E. antiqua (Odhner 1917) [=Microcystis antiqua] SS10
              |           `--E. subantiqua Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Montanocystis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*M. bellendenker Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Malandena Iredale 1937 SS10
              |           |--*M. suturalis (Odhner 1917) (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |           |--M. aquilonia Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--M. monteithi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Tropicystis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*T. fulva (Odhner 1917) [=Microcystis fulva] SS10
              |         Elatonitor Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*E. montana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Palmervillea Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*P. elevata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Pravonitor Iredale 1937 SS10
              |           |--P. kreffti (Cox 1864) (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |           |--P. ferruginea Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--P. laura Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--P. villaris (Reeve 1854) [=Helix villaris] SS10
              |         Torrecystis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*T. capensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Desidarion Iredale 1941 SS10
              |           |--*D. dispositus Iredale 1941 SS10
              |           `--D. rubricus Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Parmavitrina Iredale 1937 SS10
              |           |--*P. planilabris (Cox 1866) (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |           `--P. megastoma (Cox 1868) SS10
              |         Macularion Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*M. aquila (Cox 1868) [=Vitrina aquila] SS10
              |         Cucullarion Stanisic 1998 SS10
              |           |--*C. parkini Stanisic 1998 SS10
              |           `--C. albimaculosa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Fenestrarion Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*F. brianna Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Dimidarion Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--*D. alyssa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--D. minerva Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--D. peterbrocki Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--D. slatyeri Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Antiquarion Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*A. collinsae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Colmanarion Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           |--*C. burchi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--C. thorntoniana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Hymanarion Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |           `--*H. hanniana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
              |         Parmellops Iredale 1944 SS10
              |           `--*P. etheridgei (Brazier 1889) (see below for synonymy) SS10
              |         Howearion Iredale 1944 SS10
              |           |--*H. belli Iredale 1944 SS10
              |           `--H. hilli (Cox 1873) [=Helicarion hilli, Ho. palmarum Iredale 1944] SS10
              |         Ctenophila Ancey 1882 TTE93
              |         Ctenoglypta Ancey 1904 TTE93
              |         Pseudocaelatura Wenz 1947 TTE93
              |--Durgellinae BR05
              `--Helicarioninae BR05
                   |--Helicarion S95
                   |--Kalidos oleatus T84
                   |--Malagarion paenelimax T84
                   |--Pseudotrochatella Nevill 1881 [Pseudotrochatellinae] BR05
                   |    `--*P. undulata (Morelet 1878) [=Helicina undulata] BR17
                   |--Erepta Albers 1850 [Ereptinae] BR05
                   |    `--*E. stylodon (Pfeiffer 1842) [=Helix stylodon] BR17
                   |--Xesta Albers 1850 [Xestidae, Xestinae] BR05
                   |    `--*X. stuartiae (Pfeiffer 1845) [=Helix stuartiae] BR17
                   |--Epiglypta Pilsbry 1893 [Epiglyptidae] BR05
                   |    `--*E. howinsulae (Cox 1873) [=Helix howinsulae] SS10
                   |--Gudeoconcha Iredale 1944 [Gudeoconchidae] BR05
                   |    `--*G. sophiae (Reeve 1854) [=Helix sophiae] SS10
                   |--Westracystis Iredale 1939 S88
                   |    |--W. fredaslini Solem 1982 S88
                   |    `--W. lissus (Smith 1894) (see below for synonymy) KKW12
                   |--Sesara Albers 1860 [Sesarinae] BR05
                   |    |--*S. infrendens (Gould 1843) [=Helix infrendens] BR17
                   |    |--S. capessens [=Nanina (Sesara) capessens, Helix capessens] TC89
                   |    |--S. falcata (Blanford 1870) [=Helix falcatus, Nanina (Sesara) falcata] TC89
                   |    `--S. pylaica [=Nanina (Sesara) pylaica] TC89
                   `--Nitor Gude 1911 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
                        |--*N. subrugata (Pfeiffer 1851) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
                        |--N. circumcincta (Cox 1868) [incl. Helix marmorata Cox 1864 non Férussac 1821] SS10
                        |--N. graftonensis (Cox 1864) [=Helix graftonensis] SS10
                        |--N. medioxima Iredale 1941 SS10
                        |--N. pudibunda (Cox 1868) SS10
                        |--N. reisi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
                        |--N. whitneyae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
                        `--N. wiangariensis Hyman 2007 SS10

*Allenoconcha basispiralis Preston 1913 [incl. A. belli Preston 1913, A. congener Preston 1913, A. mathewsi Preston 1913, A. monspittensis Preston 1913, A. perdepressa Preston 1913, A. royana Preston 1913] SS10

*Brevisentis jacksoniensis (Gray 1834) [=Helix jacksoniensis; incl. Expocystis exclusus Iredale 1941] SS10

*Expocystis rustica (Pfeiffer 1852) [=Helix rustica; incl. H. crotali Cox 1864, H. impexa Reeve 1852, H. inconspicua Forbes 1851] SS10

Fanulena Iredale 1945 [incl. Dolapex Iredale 1945, Lutilodix Iredale 1945, Parcolena Iredale 1945] SS10

*Fanulena insculpta (Pfeiffer 1846) [=Helix insculpta; incl. H. basiodon Morelet 1866, Fanulena nepeanensis Iredale 1945] SS10

*Greenwoodoconcha nux (Sykes 1900) [=Microcystis nux; incl. M. castaneocincta Sykes 1900, Greenwoodoconcha castaneocincta serica Iredale 1945, G. tomi Preston 1913] SS10

Hawaiia minuscula (Binney 1840) [=Helix minuscula; incl. Magillirayella crystallina Preston 1913, Helix kawaiensis Pfeiffer in Reeve 1854, *Hawaiia kawaiensis, Johannesoconcha multivolva Preston 1913, Helix (Patula) unwini Brzier 1889] SS10

‘Helix’ verticilloides Thomä 1845 [=H. subverticillus Sandberger 1858, *Archaeozonites subverticillus] BR17

*Innesoconcha catletti (Brazier 1872) [=Helix (Microcystis) catletti; incl. Microcystis catletti major Hedley 1891, Innesoconcha catletti subconica Iredale 1944] SS10

Limacus flavus (Linnaeus 1758) SS10 [=Limax flavus SS10, Lehmannia (Limacus) flava RAS75; incl. Limax bicolor Selenka 1865 SS10, *Limacus breckworthianus Lehmann 1864 SS10, Limax megalodontes Quoy & Gaimard 1824 SS10, Limax olivaceus Gould 1852 SS10]

*Malandena suturalis (Odhner 1917) [=Macrochlamys suturalis; incl. Mac. suturalis depressa Odhner 1917] SS10

Mathewsoconcha suteri (Sykes 1900) [incl. M. albocincta Preston 1913, *M. belli Preston 1913, Belloconcha compacta Preston 1913, B. norfolkensis Preston 1913] SS10

*Milax gagates (Draparnaud 1801) SS10 [=Limax gagates SS10, Amalia gagates RAS75; incl. L. maurus Quoy & Gaimard 1824 SS10, Milax nigricolus Tate 1881 SS10, L. pectinatus Selenka 1865 SS10, M. tasmanicus Tate 1881 SS10]

Nitor Gude 1911 BR05 [=Thalassia Albers 1860 non Banks ex König 1805 (ICBN) SS10; incl. Melocystis Iredale 1937 SS10, Modonitor Iredale 1937 SS10; Nitoridae]

*Nitor subrugata (Pfeiffer 1851) BR17 [=Helix subrugata BR17, *Thalassia subrugata BR17; incl. H. clarencensis Cox 1865 SS10, Nitor subrugatus helmsianus Iredale 1941 SS10]

*Parmavitrina planilabris (Cox 1866) [=Helicarion planilabris; incl. Vitrina macgillivrayi Cox 1868] SS10

*Parmellops etheridgei (Brazier 1889) [=Parmella etheridgei; incl. Parmellops australis Iredale 1944] SS10

*Peloparion helenae (Godwin-Austen 1883) [=Helicarion helenae; incl. P. submissus Iredale 1941] SS10

Pravonitor kreffti (Cox 1864) [incl. Nitor kreffti insularum Iredale 1937, *P. kreffti insularum] SS10

*Roybellia platysoma (Sykes 1900) [=Trochononanina platystoma; incl. R. depressa Preston 1913] SS10

Westracystis lissus (Smith 1894) [=Lamprocystis lissa, Microcystis lissa; incl. Westracystis tentus Iredale 1939] KKW12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E99] Esu, D. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of Neogene climate changes in western and central Europe by means of non-marine molluscs. In: J. Agustí, L. Rook & P. Andrews (eds) The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe pp. 328–354. Cambridge University Press.

[FOS84] Foltz, D. W., H. Ochman & R. K. Selander. 1984. Genetic diversity and breeding systems in terrestrial slugs of the families Limacidae and Arionidae. Malacologia 25 (2): 593–605.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313–338.

[G59] Grimm, W. 1959. Land snails of Carroll County, Maryland. Nautilus 72 (4): 122–127.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[HM07] Honek, A., & Z. Martinkova. 2007. A field method for quantifying the grazing activity of slugs, with particular reference to Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca). Malacologia 49 (2): 273–281.

[KKW12] Köhler, F., V. Kessner & C. Whisson. 2012. New records of non-marine, non-camaenid gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from islands off the Kimberley coast, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 21–39.

[NC01] Nekola, J. C., & B. F. Coles. 2001. Systematics and ecology of Gastrocopta (Gastrocopta) rogersensis (Gastropoda: Pupillidae), a new species of land snail from the Midwest of the United States of America. Nautilus 115 (3): 105–114.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PF15] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. H. Ferriss. 1915. Mollusca of the southwestern states, VII: the Dragoon, Mule, Santa Rita, Baboquivari, and Tucson Ranges, Arizona. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 363–418, pls 8–15.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RAS75] Regteren Altena, C. O. van, & B. J. Smith. 1975. Notes on introduced slugs of the families Limacidae and Milacidae in Australia, with two new records. J. Malac. Soc. Aust. 3 (2): 63–80.

[S95] Scott, B. 1995. Redescription of Fastosarion superba (Cox, 1871), with descriptions of two new species of Fastosarion from northern Queensland (Pulmonata: Helicarionidae). Molluscan Research 16: 69–80.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[T84] Tillier, S. 1984. Patterns of digestive tract morphology in the limacisation of helicarionid, succineid and athoracophorid snails and slugs (Mollusca: Pulmonata). Malacologia 25 (1): 173–192.

[TMT96] Tillier, S., M. Masselot & A. Tillier. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of the pulmonate gastropods from rRNA sequences, and tempo and age of the stylommatophoran radiation. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 267–284. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

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