Rhytidoidea

Dorcasia alexandri, copyright H. Zell.


Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Pedinogyra, Rhytida, Paryphanta.

The Rhytidoidea are a group of snails united by molecular phylogenetic analysis, many of which are carnivorous. Members of the clade vary from small to gigantic in size with the giant panda snail Hedleyella falconeri of eastern Australia growing up to 90 mm in diameter (Stanisic et al. 2010).

See also: The Australian panda.

<==Rhytidoidea [Acavacea, Acavoidea, Rhytidacea, Rhytidoidei, Rhytidoinei, Strophocheiloidea]
    |--Macrocyclis Beck 1837 [Macrocyclidae] BR05
    |    `--*M. peruvianus (Lamarck 1822) [=Helix peruviana] BR17
    |--Clavator Martens 1860 BR05 [Clavatoridae BR17, Clavatorinae]
    |    `--*C. clavator (Petit de la Saussaye 1844) [=Bulimus clavator] BR17
    |--Acavidae BR17
    |    |--Ampelita Beck 1837 TTE93
    |    |--Helicophanta Férussac 1821 TTE93
    |    |--Acavus Montfort 1810 [Acavinae, Macroogona, Macroon] BR05
    |    |    `--*A. haemastoma (Linnaeus 1758) [=Helix haemastoma] BR17
    |    `--Leucotaenius Martens 1860 BR17
    |         `--L. favannii (Lamarck 1822) [=Bulimus favannii, Liparus favennii] BR17
    |--Strophocheilidae [Strophocheilacea] BR05
    |    |--Strophocheilus Spix 1827 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |    |    `--*S. almeida Spix 1827 BR17
    |    `--Megalobulimus Miller 1878 [Megalobulimidae, Megalobuliminae] BR05
    |         |--*M. garciamoreni (Miller 1878) [=Bulimus garciamoreni] BR17
    |         |--M. mogianensis Simone & Leme 1998 S11
    |         `--M. riopretensis Simone & Leme 1998 S11
    |--Dorcasiidae [Dorcasieae, Dorcasiinae] BR05
    |    |--Trigonephrus PB27
    |    |--Tulbaghinia PB27
    |    `--Dorcasia Gray 1838 BR05
    |         |--*D. alexandri Gray 1838 BR17
    |         |--D. antiqua Wenz 1926 TTE93
    |         |--D. bolus (Benson 1863) [=Helix (Dorcasia) bolus] TC89
    |         |--D. extrusa (Tapparone Canefri 1889) [=Helix (Dorcasia) extrusa] TC89
    |         `--D. scalpturita (Benson 1859) [=Helix (Dorcasia) scalpturita] TC89
    |--Megomphicidae [Ammonitellidae, Megomphicinae] BR05
    |    |--Megomphix Baker 1930 BR05
    |    |    `--*M. hemphilli (Binney 1879) [=Macrocyclis hemphilli] BR17
    |    |--Ammonitella Cooper 1869 [Ammonitellinae] BR05
    |    |    `--*A. yatesii Cooper 1869 BR17
    |    |--Polygyrella Bland 1869 [Polygyrellinae] BR05
    |    |    |--*P. polygyrella (Bland & Cooper 1861) [=Helix polygyrella] BR17
    |    |    `--P. lunata (Conrad 1870) TTE93
    |    |--Glyptostoma Bland & Binney 1873 BP90
    |    |    `--G. newberryanum BP90
    |    `--Polygyroidea Pilsbry 1930 BP90
    |         `--P. harfordiana BP90
    |--Caryodidae SS10
    |    |--Pedinogyra SS10
    |    |--Caryodes Albers 1850 [Caryodinae] BR05
    |    |    `--*C. dufresnii (Leach 1815) [=Bulimus dufresnii] BR17
    |    |--Anoglypta Martens 1860 [Anoglyptidae] BR05
    |    |    `--*A. launcestonensis (Reeve 1852) [=Helix launcestonensis] BR17
    |    |--Brazieresta Iredale 1933 SS10
    |    |    `--*B. larreyi (Brazier 1871) [=Bulimus larreyi] SS10
    |    |--Pandofella Iredale 1933 SS10
    |    |    `--*P. whitei (Hedley 1912) [=Panda whitei] SS10
    |    |--Hedleyella Iredale 1914 [=Panda Martens 1860 BR17; Hedleyellidae, Hedleyelloidea]
    |    |    |--*H. falconeri (Gray 1834) SS10 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--H. maconelli (Reeve 1853) SS10
    |    `--Pygmipanda Iredale 1933 SS10 [incl. Liparus Albers 1850 non Olivier 1807 BR17]
    |         |--*P. atomata (Gray 1834) SS10 (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |         `--P. kershawi (Brazier 1872) [incl. P. kershawi divulsa Iredale 1937] SS10
    `--Rhytididae [Paryphantacea, Paryphantidae] BR05
         |  i. s.: Ouagapia inaequalis (Pfeiffer 1854) TMT96
         |         Limesta Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--*L. sheridani (Brazier 1875) [=Helix (Rhytida) sheridani] SS10
         |         Microdelos Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--*M. pallida Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Costadelos Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--*C. dryander Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Altidelos Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--*A. bellendenker Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Minidelos Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--*M. mossman Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Torresiropa Iredale 1933 SS10
         |           `--*T. spaldingi (Brazier 1876) (see below for synonymy) SS10
         |         Murphitella Iredale 1933 SS10
         |           |--*M. franklandiensis (Forbes 1851) (see below for synonymy) SS10
         |           `--M. froggatti Iredale 1933 SS10
         |         Protorugosa Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*P. burraga Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--P. alpica (Iredale 1943) [=Strangesta alpica] SS10
         |         Terrycarlessia Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*T. turbinata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--T. bullacea (Reeve 1854) SS10 [=Strangesta bullacea SC07]
         |         Prolesophanta Iredale 1933 SS10
         |           |--*P. dyeri (Petterd 1879) [=Helix dyeri] SS10
         |           `--P. occlusa Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Laevidelos Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*L. moria Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--L. clermont Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Saladelos Iredela 1933 SS10
         |           |--S. commixta Iredale 1933 [=Helix splendidula Pfeiffer 1846, *S. splendidula] SS10
         |           |--S. lacertina Iredale 1933 [=S. commixta lacertina] SS10
         |           `--S. macquariensis SC07
         |         Griffithsina Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*G. connorsiana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--G. brisbanica Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--G. subglobosa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Briansmithia Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*B. ptychomphala (Reeve 1852) [=Helix ptychomphala] SS10
         |           |--B. clarkensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--B. jackstirlingi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Pseudechotrida Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*P. bordaensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--P. bouldercombe Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--P. mikros Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Macrodelos Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*M. bensa (Iredale 1933) [=Saladelos commixta bensa] SS10
         |           |--M. bishopi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--M. hobsoni (Brazier 1876) SS10
         |         Umbilidelos Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*U. manierorum Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--U. altonmoui Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--U. mcilwraith Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Echotrida Iredale 1933 SS10
         |           |--*E. strangeoides (Cox 1864) [=Helix strangeoides] SS10
         |           |--E. globosa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--E. substrangeoides Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--E. tropica Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Strangesta Iredale 1933 SS10
         |           |--S. confusa (Pfeiffer 1855) [incl. Helix leichardti Cox 1864, *S. leichardti] SS10
         |           |--S. assimilans SC07
         |           |--S. maxima (Mousson 1869) [=Zonites strangei maxima] SS10
         |           `--S. ramsayi (Cox 1868) [=Helix ramsayi] SS10
         |         Annabellia Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*A. bingara Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--A. assimilans (Cox 1864) [=Helix assimilans] SS10
         |           |--A. occidentalis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--A. subglobosa Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Montidelos Iredale 1943 SS10
         |           |--*M. orcadis Iredale 1943 SS10
         |           |--M. canerisi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--M. exiguus Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--M. macquariensis (Cox 1872) [=Helix macquariensis] SS10
         |           `--M. urarensis (Cox 1866) SS10 [=Saladelos urarensis SC07]
         |         Vitellidelos Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*V. dulcis (Iredale 1943) [=Saladelos dulcis] SS10
         |           |--V. costata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--V. dorrigoensis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--V. helmsiana (Iredale 1938) SS10
         |           `--V. kaputarensis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Delos Hutton 1904 P61
         |           |--D. (Delos) P61
         |           |    |--*D. (D.) coresia (Gray 1850) [=Zonites coresia] P61
         |           |    `--D. (D.) jeffreysiana (Pfeiffer 1853) P61
         |           `--D. (Delouagapia Powell 1952) P61
         |                `--D. (*D.) cordelia (Hutton 1883) [=Gerontia cordelia] P61
         |         Austrorhytida Smith 1987 SS10
         |           |--*A. capillacea (Férussac 1832) (see below for synonymy) SS10
         |           |--A. barringtoniana Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--A. glaciamans (Iredale 1938) [=Strangesta glaciamans] SS10
         |           |--A. harriettae (Cox 1868) [=Helix harriettae] SS10
         |           |--A. nandewarensis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--A. warrumbunglensis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Wainuia Powell 1930 P61
         |           |--*W. urnula (Pfeiffer 1855) [=Helix urnula] P61
         |           |    |--W. u. urnula P61
         |           |    `--W. u. nasuta Powell 1946 P61
         |           |--W. clarki Powell 1936 P61
         |           |--W. edwardi (Suter 1899) P61
         |           `--W. fallai Powell 1946 P61
         |         Schizoglossa Hedley 1902 P61
         |           |--*S. novoseelandica (Pfeiffer 1862) P61 [=Daudebardia novoseelandica P61, D. neozelanicus C01]
         |           |    |--S. n. novoseelandica P61
         |           |    `--S. n. barrierensis Powell 1949 P61
         |           |--S. gigantea Powell 1930 P61
         |           |--S. major Powell 1938 P61
         |           `--S. worthyae Powell 1949 P61
         |         Scagacola Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--*S. cavernula Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--S. brigalow Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--S. degenerata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--S. eddiei Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--S. einasleigh Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--S. reducta Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--S. subcavernula Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |--Chlamydephorus Binney 1879 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--*C. gibbonsi Binney 1879 [=*Apera gibbonsi] BR17
         `--Rhytidinae BR17
              |--Rhytida BR05
              |--Paryphanta BR17
              `--Occirhenea Iredale 1933 BR17, BR05 [Occirheneidae]
                   `--*O. georgiana (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) [=Helix georgiana] BR17

*Austrorhytida capillacea (Férussac 1832) [=Helix capillacea; incl. Nanina fricta Gould 1852, Strangesta sanguinolenta McLauchlan 1954, Helix strangei Pfeiffer 1849] SS10

Chlamydephorus Binney 1879 BR05 [=Apera Heynemann 1885 BR05; Aperidae, Chlamydephoridae, Chlamydephorinae BR17]

*Hedleyella falconeri (Gray 1834) SS10 [=Helicophanta falconeri SS10, *Panda falconeri BR17; incl. P. falconeri azonata Hedley 1892 non P. atomata azonata Hedley 1892 SS01, Hedleyella falconeri imitator Iredale 1933 SS10, Helix infundubulum Valenciennes 1846 SS10, Hed. falconeri jacksoniana Iredale 1933 SS10, Panda falconeri tigris Hedley 1892 SS10]

*Murphitella franklandiensis (Forbes 1851) [=Helix franklandiensis; incl. H. (Rhytida) beddomei Brazier 1876, H. (R.) jamesi Brazier 1876] SS10

*Pygmipanda atomata (Gray 1834) SS10 [=Bulimus atomatus SS10, Liparus atomatus BR17; incl. Panda atomata azonata Hedley 1892 SS10, P. atomata elongata Hedley 1892 SS10]

Strophocheilus Spix 1827 [=Strophochilus Agassiz 1846; Strophocheileae, Strophocheilinae, Strophochilinae] BR05

*Torresiropa spaldingi (Brazier 1876) [=Helix (Patula) spaldingi; incl. H. (P.) spaldingi carinata Brazier 1880 non Helix carinatus Sowerby 1812, Torresiropa mella Iredale 1933] SS10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C01] Collinge, W. E. 1901. On the anatomy of certain agnathous pulmonate mollusks. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 65–73.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SC07] Stanisic, J., R. A. D. Cameron, B. M. Pokryszko & J. C. Nekola. 2007. Forest snail faunas from S. E. Queensland and N. E. New South Wales (Australia): patterns of local and regional richness and differentiation. Malacologia 49 (2): 445-462.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[TMT96] Tillier, S., M. Masselot & A. Tillier. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of the pulmonate gastropods from rRNA sequences, and tempo and age of the stylommatophoran radiation. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 267–284. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

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