Opeas pyrgula, copyright H. Zell.

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Streptaxidae, Achatininae, Stenogyrinae, Subulininae.

The Achatinina are a clade of snails united by molecular phylogenetic analysis, members of which have genitalia with a greatly reduced or absent stimulator. The carnivorous Streptaxoidea, characterised by a radula with lanceolate teeth, form the sister group of the remaining species in the Achatinoidea.

<==Achatinina BR17
    |--Streptaxoidea BR17
    |    |--Streptaxidae BR05
    |    `--Diaphera Albers 1850 [Diapheridae] BR17
    |         `--*D. cumingiana (Pfeiffer 1845) [=Cylindrella cumingiana] BR17
    `--Achatinoidea [Achatinacea] BR05
         |--Micractaeon Verdcourt 1993 [Micractaeonidae] BR05
         |    `--*M. kakamegaensis Verdcourt 1993 BR17
         |--Aillya Odhner 1927 BR05 [Aillyida, Aillyidae BR17, Aillyoidea]
         |    `--*A. camerunensis Odhner 1927 BR17
         |--Ferussaciidae [Ferrusacidae, Ferussaciinae] SS10
         |    |--Coilostele TTE93
         |    |--Ferussacia Risso 1826 [=Ferrussacia (l. c.)] BR05
         |    |    `--*F. gronoviana Risso 1826 BR17
         |    `--Geostilbia Crosse 1867 SS10
         |         `--G. gundlachi (Pfeiffer 1850) (see below for synonymy) SS10
         `--Achatinidae [Achatinae, Achatinida, Subulinidae, Subulinoidea] SS10
              |  i. s.: Leptocala mollicella FGN07
              |         Oreohomorus P02
              |         Subulona FGN07
              |           |--S. bumbaensis (Spence 1923) [=Homorus (Subulona) bumbaensis] PB27
              |           `--S. decollata (Morelet 1873) FGN07
              |         Striosubulina FGN07
              |         Dictyoglessula FGN07
              |         Oleata FGN07
              |         Pileata FGN07
              |         Eremopeas Pilsbry 1906 SS10
              |           |--*E. interioris (Tate 1894) SS10 (see below for synonymy)
              |           `--E. tuckeri (Pfeiffer 1846) SS10 (see below for synonymy)
              |         Prosopeas achatinaceum (Pfeiffer 1846) (see below for synonymy) S88
              |         Allopeas Baker 1935 SS10
              |           |--*A. gracile (Hutton 1834) SS10 (see below for synonymy)
              |           `--A. clavulinus (Potiez & Michaud 1838) SS10
              |         Paropeas Pilsbry 1906 SS10
              |           |--*P. acutissimum (Mousson 1857) [=Bulimus acutissimus] SS10
              |           `--P. achatinaceum (Pfeiffer 1846) SS10
              |         Eutomopeas BR17
              |         Leptinaria lamellata BR17, A66 [=Tornatellina (Leptinaria) lamellata A66]
              |         Archachatina PB27
              |         Columna flammea PB27, D66
              |         Pseudachatina PB27
              |         Atopocochlis PB27
              |         Pseudotrochus jansseni Dupuis & Putzeys 1922 PB27
              |         Thomea PB27
              |         Krapfiella PB27
              |         Mabiliella PB27
              |         Metachatina PB27
              |         Cochlitoma PB27
              |         Hypolysia PB27
              |         Xerocerastus PB27
              |         Zootecus PB27
              |         Chilonopsis PB27
              |--Achatininae BR05
              |--Stenogyrinae BR05
              |--Subulininae BR17
              |--Trichodina Ancey 1888 BR17 [=Petriola Dall 1905 BR17; Petriolinae BR05]
              |    `--*T. marmorea (Reeve 1850) [=Achatina marmorea, *Petriola marmorea] BR17
              |--Rumina Risso 1826 [Ruminidae, Rumininae] BR05
              |    `--*R. decollata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Helix decollata] BR17
              |--Coeliaxis Adams & Angas 1865 [=Caeliaxis (l. c.); Caeliaxidae, Coeliaxinae] BR05
              |    `--*C. layardi (Adams & Angas 1865) [=Subulina layardi] BR17
              |--Pyrgina Greef 1882 BR05 [Pyrgininae BR17]
              |    `--*P. umbilicata Greef 1882 BR17
              |--Cryptelasmus Pilsbry 1907 BR05 [Cryptelasminae BR17]
              |    `--*C. canteroianus (Pfeiffer 1857) [=Balea canteroiana] BR17
              |--Thyrophorella Greef 1882 BR05 [Thyrophorellidae, Thyrophorellinae BR17, Thyrophorelloidea]
              |    `--*T. thomensis Greef 1882 BR17
              |--Opeas Albers 1850 [Opeatinae] BR05
              |    |--*O. goodallii (Miller 1822) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--O. minutum E99
              |    |--O. pyrgula Schmacker & Boettger 1891 S88
              |    |--O. thomasi Connolly 1923 PB27
              |    `--O. venustum PB27
              |--Cecilioides Férussac 1814 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--*C. acicula (Müller 1774) [=Buccinum acicula] BR17
              |    |--C. eulima CC06
              |    |--C. gundlachi [incl. Caecilioides spencei Dupuis & Putzeys 1922] PB27
              |    `--C. stuhlmanni PB27
              `--Glessulinae [Glessulidae] BR17
                   |--Tortaxis BR17
                   |--Glessula Martens 1860 BR05
                   |    `--*G. gemma (Reeve 1850) [=Achatina gemma] BR17
                   `--Rishetia Godwin-Austen 1920 BR17, BR05 [Rishetiinae]
                        `--*R. tenuispira (Benson 1836) [=Achatina tenuispira] BR17

*Allopeas gracile (Hutton 1834) SS10 [=Bulimus gracilis SS10, Lamellaxis (Allopeas) gracilis S88, Opeas gracile S88, Stenogyra gracilis TC89; incl. O. ardelio Iredale 1941 SS10, O. oparanum (Pfeiffer 1846) S88]

Cecilioides Férussac 1814 BR05 [=Caecilianella Bourguignat 1856 BR05, Caecilioides BR05; Caeciliae, Caecilianellea, Cecilioididae, Cecilioidinae BR17]

*Eremopeas interioris (Tate 1894) SS10 [=Stenogyra interioris SS10, Pseudopeas (Eremopeas) interioris S88]

Eremopeas tuckeri (Pfeiffer 1846) SS10 [=Bulimus tuckeri S88, Prosopeas (Eremopeas) tuckeri S88; incl. B. walli Cox 1864 SS10]

Geostilbia gundlachi (Pfeiffer 1850) [incl. Cecilioides aperta (Swainson 1840) (n. n.), *G. caledonica Crosse 1867] SS10

*Opeas goodallii (Miller 1822) BR17 [=Bulimus goodallii BR17, Helix goodalli non Ferussac 1821 S88; incl. B. pumilus Pfeiffer 1840 S88, Opeas pumilum S88]

Prosopeas achatinaceum (Pfeiffer 1846) [=Bulimus achatinaceus; incl. Achatina javanica Reeve 1849, Opeas javanicum] S88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66] Adams, H. 1866. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440–445.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[CC06] Cameron, R. A. D., L. M. Cook, G. A. Goodfriend & M. B. Seddon. 2006. Fossil land snails of Porto Santo, Madeiran archipelago: change and stasis in Pleistocene to Recent times. Malacologia 49 (1): 25–59.

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324–332.

[E99] Esu, D. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of Neogene climate changes in western and central Europe by means of non-marine molluscs. In: J. Agustí, L. Rook & P. Andrews (eds) The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe pp. 328–354. Cambridge University Press.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313–338.

[P02] Pickford, M. 2002. Early Miocene grassland ecosystem at Bukwa, Mount Elgon, Uganda. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 213–219.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

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