Clypeaster reticulatus, from here.

Belongs within: Clypeasteroida.

Clypeaster is a higly diverse genus of sand dollars, with over 400 named taxa in the literature, known from the Upper Eocene to the present (Durham 1966).

Characters (from Durham 1966): Medium-sized to large, test flattened to highly campanulate, margin rounded to flattened and inflated; peristome usually in deep infundibulum; oral surface flat to concave; petals variable, closed and rounded to open or sublyrate, with outer pores elongate, inner ones rounded, commonly connected by groove; periproct usually inframarginal, rarely marginal, situated between third and fourth, or fourth and fifth, pair of coronal plates; buccal membrane naked, with imbedded irregular spicules; internal supports variable in abundance, consisting of thin laminae and pillars; wall of test sometimes double, separated by pillars.

<==Clypeaster Lamarck 1801 M89 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. rosaceus (Linnaeus 1758) M89 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. aegyptiacus O75
    |--C. altus (Leske 1778) [=Echinanthus altus, *Miophyma altum] D66
    |    |--C. a. altus D66
    |    `--C. a. alticostatus D66
    |--C. annandalei Koehler 1922 [=*Leptoclypus annandalei] D66
    |--C. atlas Pomel 1887 [=*Pliophyma atlas] D66
    |--C. australasiae D66
    |--C. breunigi Laube 1868 [=*Laubeanthus breunigi, *Paleanthus breunigi] D66
    |--C. confusus Pomel 1887 [=*Paratina confusa, *Paratinanthus confusus] D66
    |--C. corwini Pavay 1874 [=*Pavaya corwini] D66
    |--C. doma Pomel 1887 [=*Oxclypeina doma, *Oxypleura doma] D66
    |--C. duchassaingi Michelin 1861 [=*Eurypleura duchassaingi, *Tholeopelta duchassaingi] D66
    |--C. euclastus Clark 1941 [=*Orthanthus euclastus] D66
    |--C. europacificus D66
    |--C. fervens D66
    |--C. hernandezi [=*Rojasaster hernandezi] D66
    |--C. humilis (Leske 1778) [=Echinanthus humilis; incl. *Stolonoclypus placunarius Agassiz 1863] D66
    |--C. intermedius Desmoulin 1837 [=*Eurycoila intermedia] D66
    |--C. japonicus D66
    |--C. lamprus D66
    |--C. latissimus D66
    |--*Alexandria’ magnifica Pfeffer 1881 [=*Alexandraspis magnifica] D66
    |--*Biarritzella’ marbellensis Boussac 1911 D66
    |--C. marginatus Lamarck 1816 [=*Platyclypeina marginata, *Platypleura marginata] D66
    |--C. microstoma Lambert 1914 [=*Coronanthus microstoma] D66
    |--C. ochrus D66
    |--C. priscus Oppenheim 1901 [=*Guebhardanthus priscus] D66
    |--C. profundus Agassiz 1840 D66
    |--C. ‘profundus’ Sánchez Roig 1949 non Agassiz 1840 [=*Herrerasia profunda] D66
    |--C. prostratus D66
    |--C. rangianus D66
    |--C. rarispinus D66
    |--C. ravenelii D66
    |--C. reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) BM09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. rotundus D66
    |--C. scillae Desmoulins 1837 [=*Bunactus scillae] D66
    |--C. scutellaeformis Pomel 1885 [=*Laganidea scutellaeformis] D66
    |--C. speciosus MD66
    |--C. subdepressus M89
    |--‘Echinanthus’ testudinarius Gray 1851 [=*Plesianthus testudinarius] D66
    |--‘Echinanthus’ tumidus Woods 1878 [=*Anomalanthus tumidus] D66
    |--C. virescens Döderlein 1885 MG-H11
    `--*Zanolettia’ zanoletti Sánchez Roig 1951 D66

Clypeaster Lamarck 1801 M89 [=Scutum Schumacher 1817 D66, Diplothecanthus Duncan 1889 D66, Echinanthus Gray 1825 D66, Echinorodorum Pomel 1883 D66, Nyctimene Gistl 1848 nec Bechstein 1800 nec Morris 1837 D66; incl. Alexandraspis Lambert & Thiéry 1914 D66, Alexandria Pfeffer 1881 D66, Anomalanthus Bell 1884 D66, Biarritzella Boussac 1911 D66, Bunactus Pomel 1887 D66, Coronanthus Lambert 1913 D66, Dactylanthus Lambert 1912 nec Hooker 1859 (ICBN) nec Carlgren 1911 D66, Eurycoila Lambert 1912 D66, Eurypleura Lambert 1912 non Kaup 1858 D66, Guebhardanthus Lambert 1914 D66, Herrerasia Sánchez Roig 1952 D66, Laganidea Pomel 1887 D66, Laubeanthus Lambert 1914 D66, Leptoclypus Koehler 1922 D66, Miophyma Pomel 1887 D66, Orthanthus Mortensen 1948 D66, Oxclypeina Lambert & Thiéry 1913 D66, Oxypleura Pomel 1887 non Amyot & Serville 1843 D66, Paleanthus Lambert 1912 D66, Paratina Pomel 1887 non Mik 1874 D66, Paratinanthus Lambert & Thiéry 1913 D66, Pavaya Pomel 1883 D66, Platyclypeina Lambert & Thiéry 1913 D66, Platypleura Pomel 1887 non Amyot & Serville 1843 D66, Plesianthus Duncan 1889 D66, Pliophyma Pomel 1887 D66, Rhaphidoclypus Agassiz 1863 D66, Rhaphydoclypus Checchia-Rispoli 1925 D66, Rojasaster Sánchez Roig 1952 D66, Stolonoclypus Agassiz 1863 D66, Tholeopelta Lambert & Thiéry 1913 D66, Zanolettia Sánchez Roig 1951 D66; Clypeasteridae]

Clypeaster reticulatus (Linnaeus 1758) BM09 [=Echinus reticulatus D66; incl. *Rhaphidoclypus scutiformis Agassiz 1863 D66, *Rhaphydoclypus scutiformis D66]

*Clypeaster rosaceus (Linnaeus 1758) M89 [=Echinus rosaceus M89, *Diplothecanthus rosaceus D66, *Echinanthus rosaceus D66, *Echinorodorum rosaceum D66, *Nyctimene rosacea D66, *Scutum rosaceum D66]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[D66] Durham, J. D. 1966. Clypeasteroids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U450–U491. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MD66] Melville, R. V., & J. W. Durham. 1966. Echinoids—skeletal morphology. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U220–U251. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[M89] Mooi, R. 1989. Living and fossil genera of the Clypeasteroida (Echinoidea: Echinodermata): an illustrated key and annotated checklist. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 488: 1–51.

[O75] Owen, R. 1875. On fossil evidences of a sirenian mammal (Eotherium aegyptiacum, Owen) from the nummulitic Eocene of the Mokattam cliffs, near Cairo. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 31: 100–105.

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