Heteroscleromorpha

Stylissa massa, from here.


Belongs within: Demospongiae.
Contains: Anthaspidellidae, Chalinidae, Niphatidae, Petrosina, Spongillidae, Tetractinellida, Axinellida, Bubarida, Biemnida, Agelasida, Polymastiidae, Suberitidae, Halichondriidae, Tethyida, Poecilosclerida, Clionaidae.

The Heteroscleromorpha are a major clade of demosponges that possess a skeleton composed of siliceous spicules, often in conjuction with smaller microscleres. Notable subgroups of heteroscleromorphs include the Spongillida, the freshwater sponges.

Heteroscleromorpha (see below for synonymy) MC15
    |--Haplosclerida [Haploscleromorpha] MG-H11
    |    |  i. s.: Metschnikovia G88
    |    |--Haplosclerina MC15
    |    |    |--Callyspongiidae MC15
    |    |    |    |--Siphonochalina BJ06
    |    |    |    |    |--S. fascigera Hentschel 1912 BJ06
    |    |    |    |    `--S. siphonella Lévi 1965 BJ06
    |    |    |    `--Callyspongia MG-H11
    |    |    |         |--C. aerizusa Desqueyroux-Faúndez 1984 FV09
    |    |    |         |--C. plicifera C96
    |    |    |         `--C. vaginalis F79
    |    |    |--Chalinidae MC15
    |    |    `--Niphatidae MC15
    |    `--Petrosina MC15
    `--+--+--+--Spongillida [Spongillina] MC15
       |  |  |    |  i. s.: Acanthotylotra MC15
       |  |  |    |         Balliviaspongia MC15
       |  |  |    |         Makedia MC15
       |  |  |    |         Ohridospongilla MC15
       |  |  |    |--Spongillidae MC15
       |  |  |    |--Malawispongiidae MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Cortispongilla MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Malawispongia MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Ochridaspongia MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Pachydictyum MC15
       |  |  |    |    `--Spinospongilla MC15
       |  |  |    |--Metschnikowiidae MC15
       |  |  |    |--Metaniidae MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Acalle MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Corvomeyenia MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Drulia MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Houssayella MC15
       |  |  |    |    `--Metania MC15
       |  |  |    |--Lubomirskiidae MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Baikalospongia dzhegetajensis MC15, G88
       |  |  |    |    |--Lubomirskia baicalensis PP15
       |  |  |    |    |--Rezinkovia MC15
       |  |  |    |    `--Swartschewskia MC15
       |  |  |    |--Potamolepidae MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Echinospongilla MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Oncosclera MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Potamolepis MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Potamophloios MC15
       |  |  |    |    |--Sterrastrolepis MC15
       |  |  |    |    `--Uruguaya MC15
       |  |  |    `--Palaeospongillidae MC15
       |  |  |         |--Palaeospongilla chubutensis G88
       |  |  |         |--Eospongilla MC15
       |  |  |         `--Lutetiospongilla MC15
       |  |  `--Vetulina [Sphaerocladina, Vetulinidae] MC15
       |  `--Scopalinidae [Scopalinida] MC15
       |       |--Scopalina MC15
       |       |--Svenzea MC15
       |       `--Stylissa MC15
       |            |--*S. flabelliformis MC15
       |            |--S. carteri (Dendy 1889) FV09
       |            `--S. massa (Carter 1887) FV09
       `--+--+--Tetractinellida MC15
          |  `--+--Axinellida MC15
          |     |--Bubarida MC15
          |     `--Biemnida MC15
          `--+--Agelasida MC15
             `--+--Polymastiidae MC15
                `--+--Suberitida [Suberitina] MC15
                   |    |  i. s.: Terpios fugax Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864 MC15, BJ06
                   |    |         Homaxinella MC15
                   |    |--Suberitidae MG-H11
                   |    |--Halichondriidae MC15
                   |    `--Stylocordyla MG-H11 [Stylocordylidae MC15]
                   |         `--S. borealis F79
                   `--+--+--Tethyida MC15
                      |  `--Trachycladidae [Trachycladida] MC15
                      |       |--Trachycladus laevispirulifer Carter 1879 MG-H11
                      |       `--Rhaphidhistia MC15
                      `--+--+--Merliida MC15
                         |  |    |--Merlia B30 [Merliidae MC15]
                         |  |    `--Hamacanthidae MC15
                         |  |         |--Hamacantha MC15
                         |  |         `--Pozziella MC15
                         |  `--+--Desmacellidae [Desmacellida] MC15
                         |     |    |--Desmacella MG-H11
                         |     |    |--Dragmatella MC15
                         |     |    `--Microtylostylifer MC15
                         |     `--Poecilosclerida MC15
                         `--Clionaida [Spirastrellida] MC15
                              |--Clionaidae MG-H11
                              |--Spirastrellidae MC15
                              |    |--Diplastrella MG-H11
                              |    `--Spirastrella MC15
                              |--Acanthochaetetidae MC15
                              |    |--Acanthochaetetes MC15
                              |    `--Willardia MC15
                              `--Placospongiidae MC15
                                   |--Placospongia FV09
                                   |    |--P. melobesioides Gray 1867 FV09
                                   |    `--P. mixta Thiele 1900 BJ06
                                   |--Onotoa MC15
                                   `--Placospherastra MC15

Heteroscleromorpha incertae sedis:
  Clavulidae B30
  Monocrepidae B30
  Archaeoscyphia Hinde 1889 T10
    `--*A. minganensis [=Archaeocyathus minganensis, Ethmophyllum minganensis] T10
  Tetracladidae B30
  Anthaspidellidae RB04
  ‘Monotrypella’ timorica Vinassa 1915 SG-M98
  Arabescula MC15
  Plakidium MC15
  Poritella MC15
  Petromica MC15

Heteroscleromorpha [Democlavia, Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Lithistida, Monaxonellida, Tetractinomorpha, Tetraxonida] MC15

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127–144.

[B30] Bidder, G. P. 1930. On the classification of sponges. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 44–47.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[FV09] Fromont, J., & M. A. Vanderklift. 2009. Porifera (sponges) of Mermaid, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 89–103.

[F79] Fry, W. G. 1979. Taxonomy, the individual and the sponge. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 49–80. Academic Press: London.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MC15] Morrow, C., & P. Cárdenas. 2015. Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology 12: 7.

[PP15] Pisani, D., W. Pett, M. Dohrmann, R. Feuda, O. Rota-Stabelli, H. Philippe, N. Lartillot & G. Wörheide. 2015. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (50): 15402–15407.

[RD04] Rigby, J. K., & D. W. Boyd. 2004. Sponges from the Park City Formation (Permian) of Wyoming. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 71–76.

[SG-M98] Schäfer, P., & J. A. Grant-Mackie. 1998. Revised systematics and palaeobiogeography of some Late Triassic colonial invertebrates from the Pacific region. Alcheringa 22 (2): 87–122.

[T10] Taylor, T. G. 1910. The Archaeocyathinae from the Cambrian of South Australia with an account of the morphology and affinities of the whole class. Memoirs of the Royal Society of South Australia 2 (2): 55–188.

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