Maidenhair tree Ginkgo biloba, copyright Liné1.

Belongs within: Spermatophyta.
Contains: Dicranophyllales, Pinopsida.

The Coniferophyta has been recognised as a clade of gymnosperms including conifers, the ginkgo Ginkgo biloba, and the Palaeozoic Cordaitales. Members of this clade have simple, dichotomously veined leaves, simple strobili in the axils of the leaves, and platyspermic seeds (Doyle 1998).

    |  i. s.: Carpentieria frondosa RM01
    |         Dichophyllum RM01
    |         Ginkgophyllum RM01
    |         Polyspermophyllum sergii RM01
    |         Sphenobaiera RM01
    |         Vojnovskyales RM01
    |           |--Sergeia neuburgii RM01
    |           `--Vojnovskya [Vojnovskyaceae] RM01
    |                `--V. paradoxa RM01
    |--Ginkgoopsida [Ginkgophyta] RY03
    |    |  i. s.: Ginkgoites RY03
    |    |         Phoenicopsis RY03
    |    |         Trichopitys heteromorpha RM01
    |    |         Karkenia D98
    |    |         Baiera D98
    |    `--Ginkgoales FC07
    |         |--Nehvizdya penalveri G02
    |         |--Ginkgo [Ginconinae, Ginkgoideae] CD07
    |         |    |--G. baiera GT12
    |         |    |--G. biloba Linnaeus 1771 CD07
    |         |    |--G. huttoni PL12
    |         |    `--G. liaoningensis PL12
    |         |--Eretmophyllum PL12
    |         |--Pseudotorellia PL12
    |         `--Nehvizdyella bipartita PL12
    `--Pan-Coniferae CD07
         |--+--Dicranophyllales RMH-C05
         |  `--Pinopsida FC07
         `--Cordaitales [Cordaitanthales] FC07
              |  i. s.: Cordaites F71
              |           |--C. australis F71
              |           |--C. borassifolius [=Flabellaria borassifolia] F04
              |           `--C. robbii [incl. C. borassifolius] A38
              |         Cordaitanthus devonicus A38
              |--Shanxioxylon FC07
              `--+--Mesoxylon priapii FC07, RMH-C05
                 `--Cordaixylon FC07
                      |--C. dumusum RMH-C05
                      `--C. iowensis MM12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A38] Alcock, F. J. 1938. Geology of Saint John region, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 216: 1-65.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D98] Doyle, J. A. 1998. Phylogeny of vascular plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 567-599.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FC07] Friis, E. M., P. R. Crane, K. R. Pedersen, S. Bengtson, P. C. J. Donoghue, G. W. Grimm & M. Stampanoni. 2007. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seed with Gnetales and Bennettitales. Nature 450: 549-552.

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[GT12] Giribet, G., A. L. Tourinho, C. Shih & D. Ren. 2012. An exquisitely preserved harvestman (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) from the Middle Jurassic of China. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 12: 51-66.

[G02] Gomez, B. 2002. A new species of Mirovia (Coniferales, Miroviaceae) from the Lower Cretaceous of the Iberian Ranges (Spain). Cretaceous Research 23: 761-773.

[MM12] Mao, K., R. I. Milne, L. Zhang, Y. Peng, J. Liu, P. Thomas, R. R. Mill & S. S. Renner. 2012. Distribution of living Cupressaceae reflects the breakup of Pangea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (20): 7793-7798.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623-8628.

[RY03] Ren, D., & J. Yin. 2003. New ‘osmylid-like’ fossil Neuroptera from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 111 (1): 1-11.

[RM01] Rothwell, G. W., & G. Mapes. 2001. Barthelia furcata gen. et sp. nov., with a review of Paleozoic coniferophytes and a discussion of coniferophyte systematics. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (3): 637-667.

[RMH-C05] Rothwell, G. W., G. Mapes & G. R. Hernandez-Castillo. 2005. Hanskerpia gen. nov. and phylogenetic relationships among the most ancient conifers (Voltziales). Taxon 54 (3): 733-750.

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