Eugereonoidea

Eugereon boeckingi, from here.


Belongs within: Palaeodictyoptera.

The Eugereonoidea were a diverse but relatively short-lived group of palaeodictyopteran insects from the Lower Permian.

See also: The stone mantis.

Characters (from Sinitshenkova 2002): Wings wide basally, length 2.5 times width; SC reaching C near wing apex; CuA and MA with at most a short apical fork; MP and CuP both branching; archedictyon replaced by numerous cross-veins or sparse between more widely spaced veins.

<==Eugereonoidea [Dictyoptiloidea]
    |--Archaemegaptilidae S02
    |--Graphiptilidae S02
    |--Jongmansiidae S02
    |--Lycocercidae S02
    |--Megaptilidae S02
    |--Polycreagridae S02
    |--Protagriidae S02
    |--Synarmogidae S02
    |--Lithomantis GE05 [Lithomanteidae S02]
    |    `--L. carbonarius GE05
    |--Eugereon [Dictyoptilidae, Eugereonidae] S02
    |    `--E. boeckingi S02
    `--Tchirkovaeidae S02
         |--Paimbia fenestrata Sinichenkova 1979 K-P83
         `--Tchirkovaea Zalessky 1931 BN03
              `--T. guttata S02


REFERENCES

[BN03] Bethoux, O., & A. Nel. 2003. Revision of Diaphanoptera species and new diagnosis of Diaphanopteridae (Palaeoptera: Diaphanopteridae). Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 1016-1020.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618-1669.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Superorder Dictyoneuridea Handlirsch, 1906 (=Palaeodictyopteroidea). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 115-124. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Spilapteroidea

Reconstruction of Dunbaria fascipennis, from here.


Belongs within: Palaeodictyoptera.

The Spilapteroidea were a group of palaeodictyopteran insects found from the Lower Carboniferous (including Delitzschala bitterfeldensis, one of the earliest known winged insects) to the mid-Permian.

Characters (from Sinitshenkova 2002): Wings wide basally; prothoracic winglets well-developed; veins not bent at base of wing; MA vein multibranched.

<==Spilapteroidea
    |--Aenigmatidiidae S02
    |--Fouqueidae S02
    |--Homothetidae S02
    |--Lamproptilidae S02
    |--Mecynostomatidae S02
    `--Spilapteridae [Neuburgiidae] S02
         |--Delitzschala bitterfeldensis Brauckmann & Schneider 1995 S02, FT05
         |--Dunbaria fascipennis S02, GE05
         |--Paradunbaria pectinata S02
         `--Vorkutoneura variabilis S02


REFERENCES

[FT05] Fayers, S. R., & N. H. Trewin. 2005. A hexapod from the Early Devonian Windyfield Chert, Rhynie, Scotland. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1117-1130.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Superorder Dictyoneuridea Handlirsch, 1906 (=Palaeodictyopteroidea). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 115-124. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Bryidae


Racopilum cuspidigerum, photographed by Heino Lepp.

Belongs within: Musci.
Contains: Hypnales, Hookeriales, Rhizogoniaceae, Hypnodendron, Orthotrichaceae, Splachnales, Bryaceae, Bartramiaceae, Mniaceae.

The Bryidae are one of the major subgroups of mosses. They are distinguished by the possession of a diplolepideous-alternate peristome of articulated cell wall remnants forming two alternating concentric rings of teeth with cilia often present between the inner teeth (Cox et al. 2000). Bryid mosses have been divided between the pleurocarpus Hypnaneae and the acrocarpous Bryanae, with the Rhizogoniales morphologically intermediate between the two. However, the Rhizogoniales are probably paraphyletic with regard to the Hypnaneae, and Bryanae may be paraphyletic to Rhizogoniales + Hypnaneae combined.

<==Bryidae [Pleurocarpineae]
    |  i. s.: Bryoxiphiaceae [Bryoxiphioideae] O02
    |         Desmatodon Brid. 1819 SG-C01, SK02
    |           `--D. cernuus SG-C01
    |         Leucodon Schwägr. 1816 SK02 [Leucodontaceae FHH01]
    |           |--L. canariensis FHH01
    |           `--L. sciuroides N02
    |--Hypnaneae SK02
    |    |--Hypnales SK02
    |    `--Hookeriales SK02
    |--Rhizogoniales [Rhizogonianae] SK02
    |    |--Rhizogoniaceae SK02
    |    |--Hypnodendron SK02
    |    |--Mittenia Lindb. 1863 [Mitteniaceae] SK02
    |    |    `--M. plumula (Mitt.) Lindb. 1863 [=Mniopsis plumula; incl. Mn. rotundifolia, Mittenia rotundifolia] SK02
    |    |--Spiridens Nees 1823 [Spiridentaceae] SK02
    |    |    `--S. vieillardii Schimp. 1865 [incl. S. muelleri] SK02
    |    |--Calomnion Hooker & Wilson 1854 [Calomniaceae] SK02
    |    |    |--C. complanatum (Hooker & Wilson) Lindb. 1872 [incl. C. laetum (nom. illeg.)] SK02
    |    |    `--C. milleri Vitt 1991 SK02
    |    |--Bescherellia Duby 1873 [Cyrtopodaceae] SK02
    |    |    `--B. elegantissima Duby 1873 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--Pterobryella (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1877 [Pterobryellaceae] SK02
    |    |    |--P. breviacuminata Besch. 1878 SK02
    |    |    `--P. praenitens Müll.Hal. 1878 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--Racopilaceae SK02
    |         |--Powellia Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |         |    `--P. involutifolia Mitt. 1868 [incl. Helicophyllum australe, P. australis (Hampe) Broth. 1907] SK02
    |         `--Racopilum Palisot de Beauvois 1805 SK02
    |              |--R. crinitum Hampe 1870 SK02
    |              |--R. cuspidigerum (Schwägr.) Ångström 1872 SK02
    |              |    |--R. c. var. cuspidigerum SK02
    |              |    `--R. c. var. convolutaceum (Müll.Hal.) Zanten & Dijkstra 1995 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |              |--R. pacificum Besch. 1898 SK02
    |              |--R. purpurascens Hampe 1876 SK02
    |              |--R. robustum SK02
    |              |--R. strumiferum M49
    |              `--R. tomentosum (Hedw.) Brid. 1827 [=Hypopterygium tomentosum] SK02
    `--Bryanae SK02
         |--Orthotrichaceae SK02
         |--Splachnales SK02
         |--Hedwigiales SK02
         |    |--Hedwigiaceae SK02
         |    |    |--Hedwigidium Bruch & Schimp. 1846 SK02
         |    |    |    `--H. integrifolium (Palisot de Beauvois) Dixon 1939 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    |    `--Hedwigia Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
         |    |         `--H. ciliata (Hedw.) Palisot de Beauvois 1805 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--Rhacocarpus Lindb. 1863 [Rhacocarpaceae] SK02
         |         |--R. purpurascens (Brid.) Paris 1900 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |         `--R. rehmannianus (Müll.Hal.) Wijk & Margad. 1960 SK02
         |              |--R. r. var. rehmannianus SK02
         |              `--R. r. var. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Frahm 1996 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--Bryales SK02
              |--Bryaceae SK02
              |--Bartramiaceae SK02
              |--Mniaceae SK02
              |--Aulacomnium Schwägr. 1827 [Aulacomniaceae] SK02
              |    `--A. palustre (Hedw.) Schwägr. 1827 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--Orthodontium Schwägr. 1827 [Orthodontiaceae] SK02
              |    |--O. australe Hooker & Wilson 1844 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |    |--O. inflatum (Mitt.) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |    |--O. lineare Schwägr. 1827 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |    `--O. pallens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1903 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              `--Leptostomum Brown 1811 [Leptostomataceae] SK02
                   |--L. erectum Brown 1811 [incl. Gymnostomum leptostomum] SK02
                   |--L. inclinans Brown 1811 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--L. macrocarpon (Hedw.) Bach.Pyl. 1814 [=Bryum macrocarpon] SK02
                   `--L. menziesii SK02

Nomina nuda: Desmatodon pachyneuroides Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Trichostomum pachyneuroides Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Desmatodon pachyneurus Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Trichostomum pachyneurus Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02
             Hedwigidium campbellii Müll.Hal. ex Weymouth 1894 [=Braunia campbellii Müll.Hal. ex Fleischer 1920] SK02
             Hedwigidium weymouthii Fleischer 1920 [=Braunia weymouthii Müll.Hal. ex Fleischer 1920] SK02
             Leptostomum inclinans f. procera Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Racopilum aeruginosum Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1877 SK02
             Racopilum convolutaceum f. robusta Broth. & Watts 1915 SK02
             Rhacocarpus patagonicus Dusén 1903 D03

Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwägr. 1827 [=Gymnocybe palustris, A. palustre var. eupalustre (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Bescherellia elegantissima Duby 1873 [incl. Cladomnion bescherelloides (n. n.), Cyrtopus bescherelloides (n. n.), Bescherellia brevifolia Hampe 1876, B. cryphaeoides (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1920, B. cyrtopus (n. n.)] SK02

Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) Palisot de Beauvois 1805 [=Anictangium ciliatum, Schistidium ciliatum; incl. Hedwigia albicans (nom. illeg.), H. juratzkae, Pilotrichum microcyatheum, Cryphaea microcyathea, Hedwigia microcyathea, H. novae-valesiae (nom. inv.), H. occidentalis (nom. inv.), Anictangium planifolium, H. albicans var. viridis (comb. inv.)] SK02

Hedwigidium integrifolium
(Palisot de Beauvois) Dixon 1939 [=Hedwigia integrifolia; incl. Schistidium drummondii, Hedwigia imberbis var. drummondii, Hedwigidium drummondii, Neckera drummondii, N. emersa, Harrisonia emersa (n. n.), Hedwigia emersa (n. n.), Hedwigidium emersum, Hedwigia imberbis, Hedwigidium imberbe, Schistidium australe (nom. inv.)] SK02

Leptostomum inclinans Brown 1811 [=Gymnostomum inclinans; incl. L. flexipile, L. gracile, L. inclinans var. longiseta Hampe 1856 (n. n.)] SK02

Orthodontium australe Hooker & Wilson 1844 [=Apalodium australe; incl. O. australe ssp. robustiusculum] SK02

Orthodontium inflatum (Mitt.) Paris 1896 [=Apalodium inflatum; incl. Wilsoniella compacta (n. n.), Orthodontium ovale, W. whiteleggei Geh. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 (n. n.)] SK02

Orthodontium lineare Schwägr. 1827 [=Apalodium lineare (preoc.); incl. O. lanceolatum, A. lanceolatum, A. sulcatum, Orthodontium lineare ssp. sulcatum, O. zetterstedtii] SK02

Orthodontium pallens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1903 [=Weissia pallens, Dicranella pallens, Microdus pallens, Seligeria pallens; incl. Apalodium lineare (nom. illeg.), Zygodon linearis (nom. inv.)] SK02

Pterobryella praenitens Müll.Hal. 1878 [=Dendrohypnum praenitens, Hypnodendron praenitens, Hypnum praenitens] SK02

Racopilum cuspidigerum
var. convolutaceum (Müll.Hal.) Zanten & Dijkstra 1995 [=Hypopterygium convolutaceum, R. convolutaceum (Müll.Hal.) Reichardt 1870, R. convolutum (nom. illeg.); incl. R. australe, R. cristatum, R. laetum, Hypopterygium strumiferum, R. strumiferum] SK02

Rhacocarpus purpurascens (Brid.) Paris 1900 [incl. Braunia humboldtii, Harrisonia humboldtii, Hedwigia humboldtii, Rhacocarpus humboldtii; incl. Harrisonia australis, R. australis] SK02

Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Frahm 1996 [=Harrisonia webbiana, R. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Cox, C. J., B. Goffinet, A. E. Newton, A. J. Shaw & T. A. J. Hedderson. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among the diplolepideous-alternate mosses (Bryidae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Bryologist 103 (2): 224-241.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supp. no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355-360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[O02] Ochyra, R. 2002. Nomenclatural changes in subfamilies of the Dicranaceae. Cryptogamie, Bryologie 23 (4): 345-349.

[SG-C01] Sérgio, C., & I. Granzow-de la Cerda. 2001. On the identity of Desmatodon meridionalis Luisier. Journal of Bryology 23: 69-70.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Vesicularia


The aquatic moss Vesicularia montagnei, from here.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

Vesicularia is a pantropical genus of mosses found growing in damp habitats.

Characters (from Wu et al. 2005): Plants slender or somewhat robust, pale green or dark green, in flattened mats. Stems prostrate, somewhat radiculose, simple or regularly branched, rarely pinnately branched, branches usually short, flattened, ascending; in stem cross section outer cortical cells smaller, not particularly thick-walled, medullar cells lax, thin-walled; central strand not developed. Leaves dense, more or less differentiated into dorsal, ventral, and lateral leaves, lateral leaves secund, rarely falcate, not decurrent at base, broadly ovate or oblong to ovate-lanceolate, acute or shortly to long-acuminate or filiform at apex; margins entire or only serrulate near apex; costae double, short or absent; leaf cells lax, rounded rhombic, hexagonal or nearly so, smooth, somewhat bordered, differentiated by a row of elongate cells; alar cells not differentiated; dorsal and ventral leaves smaller. Autoicous. Inner perichaetial leaves erect, slenderly acuminate. Setae elongate, smooth; capsules horizontal to inclined, ovoid, oblong-ovoid or obovoid, constricted below the mouth when dry; opercula conic, sometimes shortly rostrate; annuli developed; peristome double; exostome teeth narrowly lanceolate, yellowish brown, cross-striate on outer surface, trabeculate on inner surface; endostome segments perforate, smooth or papillose, cilia 1–3, shorter than the teeth, smooth. Calyptrae cucullate. Spores spherical, smooth.

<==Vesicularia (Müll.Hal.) Müll.Hal. 1896 SK02
    |--V. hilliana (Hampe) Allen 1987 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--V. inflectens (Brid.) Müll.Hal. 1896 SK02
    |--V. kurzii N02
    |--V. levieri N02
    |--V. montagnei (Bél.) Broth. 1908 [=Pterygophyllum montagnei Bél. 1846] SG07
    |--V. pinnatula Müll.Hal. ex Broth. 1909 SK02
    |--V. reticulata (Dozy & Molk.) Broth. 1908 [=Ectropothecium reticulatum] SK02
    |--V. rivalis Broth. 1916 SK02
    |--V. slateri (Hampe) Broth. 1908 [=Hypnum slateri, Ectropothecium slateri] SK02
    |--V. succosa N02
    `--V. vesicularis SK02

Vesicularia hilliana (Hampe) Allen 1987 [=Hypnum hillianum, Ectropothecium hillianum, Leucomium hillianum (Hampe) Jaeger 1880, L. hillii (l. c.)] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SG07] Singh, S. K. & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 155-164.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Wu P.-C., M. R. Crosby & S. He. 2005. Sematophyllaceae–Polytrichaceae. In: He, S. (ed.) Moss Flora of China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden.

Bartramiaceae


Philonotis fontana, photographed by L. Ellis.


Belongs within: Bryidae.

The Bartramiaceae are a family of mosses found worldwide, with the highest diversity in tropical montane regions. Members of the Bartramiaceae have globose capsules (giving the family the common name of 'apple mosses') and a dense, often reddish tomentum on the stems (Virtanen 2000).

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Dioicous, autoicous or synoicous. Usually tufted plants; tomentose, with central strand. Leaves erect to more or less spreading when moist, ovate-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, often with expanded basal part, shortly to longly acuminate; margins plane or recurved, denticulate to serrate above; costa ending below apex to excurrent; cells more or less hexagonal to elongate, mamillose. Setae long, usually straight; capsules erect or inclined, globose; symmetrical or not with mouth often oblique, smooth when ripe, usually longitudinally furrowed when dry and empty; lid conical, sometimes shortly beaked; peristome double, rarely single, rudimentary or absent, exostome longer than endostome, processes bifid, cilia rudimentary or absent; calyptrae minute, cucullate.

<==Bartramiaceae
    |--Fleischerobryum longicolle N02
    |--Leiomela bartramioides J87
    |--Bartramidula Bruch & Schimp. 1846 SK02
    |    `--B. exigua D03b
    |--Conostomum Swartz 1804 SK02
    |    |--C. curvirostre (Mitt.) Mitt. 1882 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--C. magellanicum D03b
    |    |--C. pentastichum (Brid.) Lindb. 1863 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |    |--C. p. var. pentastichum SK02
    |    |    `--‘Philonotis australis’ var. surculigera SK02
    |    `--C. pusillum Hooker & Wilson 1854 [=Philonotis pusilla; incl. C. parvulum] SK02
    |--Breutelia (Bruch & Schimp.) Schimp. 1856 SK02
    |    |--B. affinis (Hooker) Mitt. 1856 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--B. arundinifolia (Duby) Fleischer 1904 [incl. Bartramia gigantea (preoc.)] SK02
    |    |--B. aureola D03b
    |    |--B. baeuerlenii (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Bartramia baeuerlenii] SK02
    |    |--B. brachycoma D03b
    |    |--B. brittoniae J87
    |    |--B. campbelliana (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Bartramia campbelliana] SK02
    |    |--B. chilensis D03a
    |    |--B. dumosa D03b
    |    |--B. elongata (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1881 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--B. hariotiana D03b
    |    |--B. leptodontoides (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Bartramia leptodontoides] SK02
    |    |--B. lonchopelma (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Bartramia lonchopelma] SK02
    |    |--B. luteola Müll.Hal. ex Broth. 1897 [=Bartramia luteola (n. n.); incl. Philonotis subluteola (n. n.)] SK02
    |    |--B. pendula (Smith) Mitt. 1860 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--B. pseudophilonotis (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--B. rupestris D03b
    |    `--B. witherheadii (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Bartramia witherheadii] SK02
    |--Bartramia Hedw. 1801 SK02
    |    |--B. afrostricta Müll.Hal. 1899 SK02
    |    |--B. aristata D03b
    |    |--B. bogongia Catches. 1987 SK02
    |    |--B. compacta Hornsch. 1820 SK0
    |    |--B. halleriana Hedw. 1801 [incl. B. norvegica] SK02
    |    |--B. hampeana Müll.Hal. 1858 SK02
    |    |--B. hampei (Mitt.) Catches. 1980 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--B. ithyphylla Brid. 1803 [incl. B. acerosa, B. fragilis, B. papillata] SK02
    |    |    |--B. i. var. ithyphylla D03b
    |    |    `--B. i. var. arenae D03b
    |    |--B. magellanica D03b
    |    |--B. mossmaniana Müll.Hal. 1851 [incl. B. halleriana var. brachydonta Kabiersch 1937] SK02
    |    |--B. nothostricta Catches. 1987 SK02
    |    |--B. patens Brid. 1803 SK02
    |    |--B. pomiformis SK02
    |    |--B. pseudostricta Catches. 1987 SK02
    |    |--B. stricta Brid. 1803 SK02
    |    |--B. strictifolia Taylor 1846 SK02
    |    `--B. timmioides Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Philonotis timmioides (n. n.)] SK02
    `--Philonotis Brid. 1827 SK02
         |--P. australiensis Griffin & Buck 1989 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. austrofalcata Broth. & Watts 1912 SK02
         |--P. dicranellacea (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Bartramia dicranellacea] SK02
         |--P. fontana D03b
         |--P. ‘fontanoides’ Broth. & Watts 1912 (preoc.) SK02
         |--P. glaucescens (Hornsch.) Broth. 1895 [=Bartramia glaucescens Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.)] SK02
         |--P. glomerata Mitt. 1859 SG07
         |--P. hastata (Duby) Wijk & Margad. 1959 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. longiseta SK02
         |--P. mollis (Dozy & Molk.) Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |--P. nigroflava D03b
         |--P. nitida N02
         |--P. pallida (Hampe) Jaeger 1879 [=Bartramia pallida] SK02
         |--P. parallela Dusén 1903 D03b
         |--P. pseudomollis (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1879 [=Bartramia pseudomollis] SK02
         |--P. pyriformis (R.Br.bis) Wijk & Margad. 1962 SK02
         |--P. scabrifolia (Hooker & Wilson) Braithw. 1893 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. slateri (Hampe) Jaeger 1879 [=Bartramia slateri] SK02
         |--P. tenuis (Taylor) Reichardt 1870 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. tortifolia (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Bartramia tortifolia] SK02
         |--P. uncinata J87
         `--P. vagans D03b

Nomina nuda: Bartramia atrolutea Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Bartramia austroalpina Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Bartramia papillata var. brevifolia Broth. & Geh. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Bartramia crawfordii Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Breutelia crawfordii Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Bartramia flavolurida Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Bartramia flexinutans Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Batramidula flexinutans Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Bartramia gemmifera Hampe & Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Philonotis gemmifera Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Bartramia gracilicaulis Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Bartramia graminea Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Philonotis graminea Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Bartramia gymnostoma Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Bartramia homalostegia Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Bartramia leptoneura Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Bartramia maccanniae Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Bartramia acerosa var. minor Hampe ex Watts & Whitelegge 1906 SK02
             Bartramia papillata var. minor Hampe ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 non B. acerosa var. minor Hampe ex Watts & Whitelegge 1906 SK02
             Bartramia strictifolia var. minor Watts & Whitel. 1906 nec B. papillata var. minor Hampe ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 nec B. acerosa var. minor Hampe ex Watts & Whitelegge 1906 SK02
             Bartramia pallidifolia
Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Bartramia pilata Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Philonotis pilata Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Batramia scariosifolia Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Philonotis scariosifolia Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Bartramia stirlingi Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Bartramia subacerosa Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Bartramia subsimplex Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Philonotis subsimplex Watts & Whitel. 1906; incl. P. simplex Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Bartramia walhallae Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Philonotis walhallae Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Bartramia weymouthii Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Philonotis weymouthii Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Bartramidula pygmaea Müll.Hal. ex Kindb. 1888 [=Bartramia pygmaea Müll.Hal. 1901] SK02
             Breutelia glabrifolia Dusén 1903 D03b
             Breutelia pseudophilonotis var. longiseta Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Breutelia commutata var. major Hampe ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Breutelia communata f. minor Hampe ex Bastow 1887 SK02
             Breutelia pendula f. minor Geh. 1897 non B. communata f. minor Hampe ex Bastow 1887 [=B. pendula var. minor Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906] SK02
             Breutelia nanoarcuata
Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Breutelia pendula var. prostrata Hampe ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Breutelia sieberi f. robusta Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Breutelia subelongata Broth. in Dusén 1903 D03b
             Breutelia affinis var. tomentosa Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=B. tomentosa Watts & Whitel. ex Wijk, Margad. & Florsch. 1959] SK02
             Conostomum gracile Hampe 1880 SK02
             Philonotis arapilesii Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Philonotis atrolutea Müll.Hal. ex Jaeger 1879 SK02
             Philonotis austropyrenaica Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Philonotis harrisii Geh. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Philonotis micropteris Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Philonotis percapillaris Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Philonotis dicranellacea f. robusta Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 SK02
             Philonotis tenuicula Geh. ex Watts & Whitel. 1906 [incl. P. whiteleggei Watts 1906] SK02
             Philonotis uncinatula Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1876 [=Bartramia uncinatula Müll.Hal. 1901] SK02

Bartramia hampei (Mitt.) Catches. 1980 [=Bartramidula hampei, Glyphocarpa erecta, Bartramia erecta (preoc.), Glyphocarpus erectus (preoc.)] SK02

Breutelia affinis (Hooker) Mitt. 1856 [=Bartramia affinis, Glyphocarpus affinis, Philonotis affinis; incl. Bartramia brownei (nom. inv.), Breutelia commutata, Ba. commutata (preoc.)] SK02

Breutelia elongata (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1881 [=Bartramia elongata, Prionodon elongatus; incl. Ba. crassa, Breutelia crassa] SK02

Breutelia pendula (Smith) Mitt. 1860 [=Bartramia pendula; incl. Ba. comiramea, Breutelia comiramea (nom. inv.), Ba. comosa, Br. comosa, Ba. divaricata, Br. divaricata, Br. fuscoaurea, Bartramia reflexa (n. n.), Br. reflexa (n. n.), Ba. sieberi, Br. sieberi] SK02

Breutelia pseudophilonotis (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1906 [=Bartramia pseudophilonotis, Philonotis pseudophilonotis; incl. Ba. atrata (nom. inv.), Breutelia atrata (n. n.)] SK02

Conostomum curvirostre (Mitt.) Mitt. 1882 [=Bartramia curvirostris; incl. B. rostrata (n. n.), Glyphocarpa rostrata (n. n.), Glyphocarpus rostratus (n. n.)] SK02

Conostomum pentastichum (Brid.) Lindb. 1863 [incl. Bartramia australis Mitt. 1869 (preoc.), C. australe (nom. illeg.), Philonotis australis, C. giganteum Bartram & Dixon 1937, C. tetragonum] SK02

Philonotis australiensis Griffin & Buck 1989 [incl. Glyphocarpa pusilla, Bartramia pusilla, Bartramidula pusilla (Hooker & Wilson) Paris 1894, Glyphocarpus pusillus; incl. Bartramidula pusilla var. weymouthii] SK02

Philonotis hastata (Duby) Wijk & Margad. 1959 [incl. P. imbricatula, P. jardinii (Besch.) Paris 1897, P. laxissima (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Philonotis scabrifolia (Hooker & Wilson) Braithw. 1893 [incl. Bartramia appressa, P. appressa, B. catenulata, P. catenulata, B. remotifolia, P. remotifolia] SK02

Philonotis tenuis (Taylor) Reichardt 1870 [=Bartramia tenuis; incl. B. fertilis, Philonotis fertilis, P. rigens] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03a] Dusén, P. 1903a. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D03b] Dusén, P. 1903b. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SG07] Singh, S. K. & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 155-164.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Ectropothecium


Ectropothecium zollingeri, from here.

Belongs within: Hypnales.

Ectropothecium is a large and complex genus of about 200 species of mosses found around the world, with most species growing in water or completely waterlogged soil. Ectropothecium species possess one or a few inflated, hyaline alar cells, relatively elongate, slender setae, and very small, ovoid capsules that are horizontal to inclined and strongly constricted below the mouth when dry; they differ from members of the similar genus Hypnum in lacking a group of coloured alar cells (Moss Flora of China).

See also: Mosses: not as simple as you think (Taxon of the Week: Ectropothecium).

Characters (from Wu et al. 2005): Plants slender to rather robust, yellowish green or brownish green, glossy or not glossy. Stems prostrate, sometimes pendulous, ascending or erect when in dense mats, radiculose, simple or pinnately branched, branches ascending, usually complanate; paraphyllia absent, pseudoparaphyllia filamentous or lanceolate to foliose. Stem leaves and branch leaves heteromorphic, or more or less similar, ovate- or obovate-lanceolate, somewhat asymmetric, often falcate-secund, not decurrent at base, usually dorsal, ventral, and lateral leaves differentiated; costae double, short, very weak, or distinct; leaf cells linear, sometimes distinctly prorate; basal cells shorter and broader; alar cells few, small, quadrate or shortly rectangular, usually not particularly inflated, but with one or two cells clearly distinct. Autoicous or dioicous. Inner perichaetial leaves broadly lanceolate, gradually acuminate or suddenly narrowed to a slender acumen. Setae elongate; capsules horizontal to inclined, small to very small, ovoid to urceolate or shortly cylindrical, often constricted below the mouth when dry; exothecial cells sometimes mammillose; opercula inflated, conic, apiculate to shortly rostrate; annuli differentiated; peristome double; exostome teeth narrowly lanceolate, not bordered, cross-striate on the outer surface, trabeculate on the inner surface; endostome segments linear-lanceolate, with a high basal membrane and 2–4 cilia. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth, sometimes hairy. Spores small, usually smooth.

<==Ectropothecium Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |--E. buitenzorgii N02
    |--E. condensatum Broth. & Watts 1912 SK02
    |--E. cyperoides N02
    |--E. howeanum Broth. & Watts 1915 SK02
    |--E. leptochaeton J87
    |--E. leucochlorum (Hampe) Broth. 1908 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--E. moritzii Jaeger 1879 SK02
    |--E. novae-valesiae (Broth.) Ireland 1992 [=Plagiothecium novae-valesiae Broth. 1916] SK02
    |--E. riparioides Bartram 1952 SK02
    |--E. sandwichense (Hooker & Arnott) Mitt. 1873 [=Hypnum sandwichense] SK02
    |--E. sodale (Sull.) Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |--E. sydneyense Dixon 1950 SK02
    |--E. umbilicatum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1904 [=Hypnum umbilicatum] SK02
    |    |--E. u. var. umbilicatum SK02
    |    `--E. u. var. protractum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1904 [=Hypnum umbilicatum var. protractum] SK02
    `--E. zollingeri (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1880 (see below for synonymy) SK02

Nomina nuda: Ectropothecium leptomyurum Paris 1900 [=Cupressina leptomyura Paris 1900] SK02
             Ectropothecium spirifolium Dusén 1903 D03

Ectropothecium leucochlorum (Hampe) Broth. 1908 [=Drepanohypnum leucochlorum, Hypnum leucochlorum, Stereodon leucochlorus; incl. Plagiothecium howeanum Jaeger 1878 (n. n.), Hypnum howeanum (n. n.), P. howei (n. n.)] SK02

Ectropothecium zollingeri (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1880 [incl. E. serrifolium, Glossadelphus serrifolius (Broth. & Watts) Broth. 1925] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Wu P.-C., M. R. Crosby & S. He. 2005. Sematophyllaceae–Polytrichaceae. In: He, S. (ed.) Moss Flora of China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden.

Trachylomataceae


A Trachyloma photographed in Pureora Forest, New Zealand, from Andy Down Under.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Trachylomataceae are a small family of mosses containing just two genera, Trachyloma and Braithwaitea.

Characters (from Buck & Goffinet 2000): Stems sympidially branched; secondary stems stipitate frondose, complanate-foliate; alar cells weakly differentiated; asexual propagules of stem-borne filamentous gemmae; exostome teeth pale, densely papillose.

<==Trachylomataceae
    |--Braithwaitea Lindb. 1872 SK02
    |    `--B. sulcata (Hooker) Jaeger & Sauerb. 1877 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--Trachyloma Brid. 1827 SK02
         |--T. diversinerve Hampe 1880 [=Pterobryon diversinerve; incl. T. leptopyxis] SK02
         |--T. indicum Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |    |--T. i. var. indicum SK02
         |    `--T. i. var. novae-guineae (Müll.Hal.) Mill. & Manuel 1982 SK02
         |--T. planifolium (Hedw.) Brid. 1827 [=Pterobryon planifolium; incl. T. muelleri] SK02
         |--T. pycnoblastum Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
         `--T. wattsii Broth. 1915 SK02

Braithwaitea sulcata (Hooker) Jaeger & Sauerb. 1877 [=Leskea sulcata, Climacium sulcatum, Dendroleskea sulcata, Isothecium sulcatum, Neckera sulcata, Pterobryon sulcatum; incl. Pterobryopsis filigera, Pilotrichum nematosum, Braithwaitea nematosa] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Buck, W. R., & B. Goffinet. 2000. Morphology and classification of mosses. In: Shaw, A. J., & B. Goffinet. Bryophyte Biology pp. 71-123. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Isopterygium


Isopterygium albescens, from Hong Kong Flora.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

Isopterygium is a genus of mosses found around the world.

Characteristics (from Ireland & Buck 2009): Plants small to medium-sized, in thin to dense mats, glossy, light green to yellow-green. Stems complanate-foliate, creeping, simple or sparingly and irregularly branched, cortical cells small and thick-walled in cross-section, surrounding larger, thinner walled cells, central strand usually absent; rhizoids smooth, on ventral surface of stems and branches just below juncture of leaves; filamentous pseudoparaphyllia present, of 3–6 cells in 1 row or rarely 2 rows near base; axillary hairs consisting of 1 moderately long, brown basal cell and 1–3 elongate, hyaline distal cells. Asexual reproductive bodies sometimes present on stems and branches, uniseriate, often branched, filamentous, multicellular bodies with papillose cells. Stem and branch leaves similar, rigid or flaccid, crowded and imbricate to remote, erect-spreading or squarrose, sometimes contorted when dry, smooth, flat or somewhat concave, symmetric or asymmetric, nondecurrent or rarely with 1–2 decurrent cells, ovate or lanceolate, sometimes oblong, acute to acuminate; margins plane to erect, sometimes recurved at base, serrulate above the middle, mostly entire below, sometimes entire throughout; costa short and double, occasionally lacking; median cells often flexuose, thin to firm-walled, linear-fusiform, smooth, with walls not pitted or occasionally those of basal cells pitted; alar cells usually clearly differentiated, quadrate to rectangular, rarely transversely elongate. Autoicous or rarely dioicous; perigonia scattered along the stems; perichaetia at base of stems, leaves oblong-lanceolate, gradually acuminate; margins plane. Setae smooth, elongate, straight to curved, usually twisted, yellow, brown, or reddish brown; capsules inclined to cernuous, or sometimes erect, straight or curved when mature, brown to red-brown, cylindrical, ellipsoid or ovoid, smooth or sometimes wrinkled at neck and usually contracted below the mouth when dry; operculum conic to short-rostrate, shorter than the urn; annulus none; peristome double, exostome teeth cross-striolate below, papillose above, bordered, trabeculate at back; endostome with a high to low basal membrane, keeled segments, and cilia shorter than the segments, in groups of 1–3, sometimes absent. Spores spherical to ovoid, smooth or minutely papillose. Calyptra cucullate, smooth, naked.

<==Isopterygium Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |--I. acuminatum Bosw. 1892 SK02
    |--I. albescens (Hooker) Jaeger 1878 [incl. Hypnum candidum, I. candidum; incl. I. molliculum] SK02
    |--I. amblyocarpum (Hampe) Broth. 1908 [=Leskea amblyocarpa, Platygyrium amblyocarpum] SK02
    |--I. amoenum Broth. 1900 SK02
    |--I. arachnoideum Broth. 1900 SK02
    |--I. byssicaule (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
    |--I. howeanum Broth. & Watts 1915 SK02
    |--I. latifolium Broth. 1900 SK02
    |--I. lignicola N02
    |--I. limatum (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--I. longitheca N02
    |--I. minutirameum (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1878 [=Taxiphyllum minutirameum (Müll.Hal.) Mill. & Smith 1968] SK02
    |    |--I. m. var. minutirameum [incl. Hypnum austropusillum, I. austropusillum] SK02
    |    `--I. m. var. brevifolium (Fleischer) Bartram 1933 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--I. neocaledonicum Thér. 1909 SK02
    |--I. norfolkianum [=Hypnum norfolkianum; incl. H. nitidulum (nom. illeg.)] SK02
    |--I. novae-valesiae Broth. 1900 [=Taxithelium novae-valesiae (Broth.) Broth. 1908] SK02
    |--I. pseudosubulatum SK02
    |--I. pulchellum (Hedw.) Jaeger 1878 [=Isopterygiopsis pulchella] SK02
    `--I. subarachnoideum Broth. 1900 SK02

Nomina nuda: Isopterygium austrosubulatum Müll.Hal. ex Burges 1935 SK02
             Isopterygium baileyanum Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1888 SK02
             Isopterygium caespitulosum Paris 1900 [=Taxicaulis caespitulosus Müll.Hal. ex Paris 1900] SK02
             Isopterygium sublatifolium Broth. 1918 SK02
             Isopterygium viridepallens Müll.Hal. ex Burges 1935 SK02
             Isopterygium viridipallidus Müll.Hal. ex Forsyth 1900 SK02

Isopterygium limatum (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 [=Hypnum limatum, Rhaphidorrhynchum limatum (nom. inv.); incl. Ectropothecium australe] SK02

Isopterygium minutirameum var. brevifolium (Fleischer) Bartram 1933 [=Taxiphyllum minutirameum var. brevifolium (Fleischer) Whittier 1975] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Ireland, R. R., & W. R. Buck. 2009. Some Latin American genera of Hypnaceae (Musci). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 93: 1-97.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Meteoriaceae


Papillaria flavolimbata, photographed by Heino Lepp.

Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Meteoriaceae are a mainly Southern Hemisphere family of mosses with a characteristic pendent habit, though some montane species tend to lose this feature. A number of species are able to propagate through branch fragments due to the presence of subapical rhizoids (H. Streimann, 2012, Australian Mosses Online).

Characters (from Huttunen 2004): Pendent habit; monopodial growth; specific pattern of pseudoparaphyllia surrounding leaf primordia (three pseudoparaphyllia, with anterior one overlapping posterior ones); shoots either terete or complanate, foliage and appearance of the shoots plastic depending on position of the shoot relative to substrate. Leaf laminal cell shape linear to rhomboidal; cells uni- to pluripapillose; if latter papillae either scattered over cell lumen or arranged in rows over lumen or cell walls. Seta length from 1 mm to 2-3 cm. Capsules most often erect and cylindrical to oblong, but in some cases inclined and almost globose. Calyptra either hairy or naked.

<==Meteoriaceae
    |--Aerobryidium filamentosum N02
    |--Barbella (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer ex Broth. 1906 SK02
    |--Meteoridium remotifolium J87
    |--Barbellopsis Broth. 1929 SK02
    |    `--B. trichophora (Montagne) Buck 1998 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Pseudospiridentopsis (Broth.) Fleischer 1908 SK02
    |    `--P. horrida (Mitt. ex Cardot) Fleischer 1908 SK02
    |--Meteoriopsis Fleischer ex Broth. 1906 SK02
    |    |--M. patula J87
    |    `--M. reclinata (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer ex Broth. 1906 [incl. Floribundaria robustula Broth. & Watts 1918] SK02
    |--Squamidium J87
    |    |--S. leucotrichum J87
    |    `--S. nigricans J87
    |--Meteorium Dozy & Molk. 1848 SK02
    |    |--M. buchananii (Brid.) Broth. 1906 SK02
    |    |--M. illecebrum J87
    |    `--M. polytrichum Dozy & Molk. 1848 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Aerobryopsis Fleischer 1905 SK02
    |    |--A. longissima (Dozy & Molk) Fleischer 1905 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--A. mexicana J87
    |    `--A. wallichii (Brid.) Fleischer 1908 [=Hypnum wallichii] SK02
    |--Trachypus Reinw. & Hornsch. 1829 SK02
    |    `--T. humilis Lindb. 1872 SK02
    |         |--T. h. var. humilis [incl. T. novae-caledoniae] SK02
    |         `--T. h. var. flagellifer (Broth. ex Herzog) Miller 1967 SK02
    |--Floribundaria Müll.Hal. ex Fleischer 1905 SK02
    |    |--F. floribunda (Dozy & Molk.) Fleischer 1905 SK02
    |    |--F. pseudofloribunda Fleischer 1908 SK02
    |    `--F. walkeri (Renauld & Cardot) Broth. 1906 SK02
    |--Pilotrichella (Müll.Hal.) Besch. 1872 JR-SM-G05, SK02
    |    |--P. conferta SK02
    |    |--P. cumingii D03
    |    |--P. cuspidans J87
    |    |--P. flexilis (Hedw.) Aongstr. 1876 JR-SM-G05
    |    |--P. hexasticha J87
    |    |--P. krausei D03
    |    |--P. pentasticha J87
    |    `--P. rigida (Muell) Besch 1872 JR-SM-G05
    `--Papillaria (Müll.Hal.) Lorentz 1864 SK02
         |--P. crocea (Hampe) Jaeger 1877 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. deppei (Muell.) Jaeg 1877 JR-SM-G05
         |--P. flavolimbata (Müll.Hal. & Hampe) Jaeger 1877 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. flexicaulis (Wilson) Jaeger 1877 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. imponderosa J87
         |--P. intricata (Mitt.) Müll.Hal. & Broth. 1900 [=Meteorium intricatum] SK02
         |--P. leuconeura (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1877 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. nitens (Hooker & Wilson) Sainsbury 1952 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. penicillata J87
         `--P. zeloflexicaulis Streimann 1991 SK02

Aerobryopsis longissima (Dozy & Molk) Fleischer 1905 [incl. A. stigmatophylla (n. n.), Meteorium stigmatophyllum Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1890 (n. n.)] SK02

Barbellopsis trichophora (Montagne) Buck 1998 [=Barbella trichophora (Montagne) Fleischer ex Broth. 1906; incl. Meteorium cinclidotus (n. n.), M. compressum Mitt. 1882, Papillaria compressa (Mitt.) Kindb. 1891, Barbella cubensis (Mitt.) Broth. 1906, Meteorium dicladioides (n. n.), Barbella enervis, Neckera trichophoroides, Barbella trichophoroides, Meteorium trichophoroides, Pilotrichella trichophoroides] SK02

Meteorium polytrichum Dozy & Molk. 1848 [=M. buchananii f. polytrichum; incl. Papillaria baileyi, M. baileyi (Broth.) Broth. 1906, M. miquelianum] SK02

Papillaria crocea (Hampe) Jaeger 1877 [=Pilotrichum croceum; incl. Meteorium cuspidiferum, Papillaria cuspidifera, Trachypus hornschuchii (nom. inv.), Trachycarpus hornschuchii (nom. inv.), Neckera kermadecensis, Meteorium kermadecense, Papillaria kermadecensis, Pilotrichella kermadecensis, Neckera nigrescens (nom. inv.), Papillaria nigrescens, Pilotrichum nigrescens, N. reginae, Meteorium reginae, Papillaria reginae (Hampe) Jaeger 1877, Pilotrichella reginae, Pilotrichum sieberi Hampe 1847 (n. n.)] SK02

Papillaria flavolimbata (Müll.Hal. & Hampe) Jaeger 1877 [=Neckera flavolimbata; incl. Meteorium cuspidiferum var. cerinum, N. cerina, Papillaria cuspidifera var. cerina, Pilotrichella cerina (nom. illeg.), Trachypus cerinus, Meteorium limbatum (nom. illeg.), Neckera luteola (nom. inv.)] SK02

Papillaria flexicaulis (Wilson) Jaeger 1877 [=Meteorium flexicaule, Leskea flexicaulis (nom. inv.), Papillaria filicaule (l. c.), Trachypus flexicaulis, incl. Meteorium filipendulum, Papillaria filipendula, Pilotrichella filipendula, Meteorium filum Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1890 (n. n.), Cryphaea novae-valesiae (n. n.), C. papillarioides (n. n.), Pilotrichum pendulinum (nom. inv.), Pilotrichum pendulum (nom. inv.), Neckera scottiae, Papillaria scottiae, Pilotrichella scottiae] SK02

Papillaria leuconeura (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1877 [incl. Neckera amblyacis, Meteorium amblyacis, Papillaria amblyacis (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1877, Pilotrichella amblyacis, Neckera eavesiana, Meteorium eavesianum, Papillaria eavesiana (Hampe) Jaeger 1877, Pa. eavesii (l. c.), Neckera squamata, Pa. squamata (Müll.Hal. ex Hampe) Hampe 1880] SK02

Papillaria nitens (Hooker & Wilson) Sainsbury 1952 [=Barbella nitens (Hooker & Wilson) Nog. 1985; incl. Neckera dimorpha, Meteorium dimorphum, Pilotrichella dimorpha (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1879, M. fulvum, Papillaria fulva (Mitt.) Jaeger 1877, Pilotrichella fulva, Pa. nitidiuscula] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

Huttunen, S. 2004. Phylogeny and evolutionary relationships of the moss families Brachytheciaceae and Meteoriaceae. PhD thesis, University of Helsinki.

[JR-SM-G05] Johansen, R. M., A. P. Retana-Salazar & A. Mojica-Guzmán. 2005. A review of the New World bryophyte-feeding genus Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 61-83.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Hylocomiaceae


Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus, photographed by James K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Hylocomiaceae are a family of mosses found in cool temperate and arctic parts of the world.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Dioicous. Plants medium-sized to robust, forming mats to lax wefts. Stems procumbent to erect, irregularly to pinnately or subpinnately branched. Paraphyllia present or absent; pseudoparaphyllia usually present, foliose. Leaves erect to spreading or squarrose, plicate or not, broadly ovate to lanceolate, acuminate to rounded, base sometimes decurrent; margins often recurved below, usually denticulate to dentate; costa usually double, rarely single; alar cells differentiated or not, basal cells incrassate, porose, cells above narrowly elliptical to linear, sometimes prorate. Branch leaves narrower, smaller and often more sharply toothed than stem leaves. Setae smooth; capsules erect to pendulous; annulus of 1-3 rows of cells or absent; lid conical to longly rostrate; exostome teeth variously ornamented, endostome with high basal membrane, cilia 1-4, rarely absent; calyptrae cucullate.

<==Hylocomiaceae
    |--Hylocomium VHJ03
    |    |--H. brevirostre VHJ03
    |    `--H. himalayanum N02
    |--Rhytidiadelphus (Limpr.) Warnst. 1906 VHJ03, SK02
    |    |--R. japonicus VHJ03
    |    |--R. loreus VHJ03
    |    |--R. squarrosus (Hedw.) Warnst. 1906 SK02
    |    |--R. subpinnatus VHJ03
    |    `--R. triquetrus VHJ03
    |--Leptohymenium tenue N02
    `--Macrothamnium N02
         |--M. macrocarpum N02
         |--M. stigmatophyllum N02
         `--M. submacrocarpum N02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VHJ03] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs & A.-L. Jacquemart. 2003. Differentiation in DNA fingerprinting and morphology among species of the pleurocarpous moss genus, Rhytidiadelphus (Hylocomiaceae). Taxon 52: 229-236.

Entodontaceae


Entodon luridus, from here.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Entodontaceae are a family of mosses with creeping, often irregularly branched stems. They are particularly diverse in tropical montane habitats.

Characters (from Khatun & Hadiuzzaman 2006): Medium-sized, slender, glossy plants growing in loose tufts. Main stem creeping, irregularly to pinnately or sub-pinnately branched, branches generally julaceous. Stem and branch leaves more or less similar, leaves crowded in many rows, usually appressed at least when dry, sometimes more or less complanate, mostly symmetrical. Costa absent or very short, double and delicate. Leaves linear to oblong-linear, smooth, those at the basal angle quadrate and rectangular or transversely rectangular, sometimes in many oblique rows, alar region well-differentiated.

<==Entodontaceae
    |--Rozea pterogonioides N02
    |--Campylodontium Schwägr. 1827 SK02
    |--Cylindrothecium Bruch & Schimp. 1851 SK02
    |--Mesonodon Hampe 1865 SK02
    |    `--M. flavescens (Hooker) Buck 1980 [=Campylodontium flavescens] SK02
    `--Entodon Müll.Hal. 1845 SK02
         |--E. curvatus N02
         |--E. hampeanus J87
         |--E. laetus N02
         |--E. luridus N02
         |--E. luteonitens N02
         |--E. mackaviensis Müll.Hal. 1872 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--E. macropodus J87
         |--E. myurus N02
         |--E. plicatus Müll.Hal. 1845 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--E. rubicundus N02

Nomen nudum: Entodon hartmannii Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1877 [=Cylindrothecium hartmannii Paris 1894] SK02
             Entodon hypnodelphus Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880 SK02

Entodon mackaviensis Müll.Hal. 1872 [=Cylindrothecium mackaviense, E. mackayensis (l. c.); incl. E. daemelii Müll.Hal. ex Jaeger 1878 (n. n.), Cylindrothecium daemeli Paris 1894 (n. n.), E. latifolius Broth. 1892 (n. n.), C. myosurella Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1876 (n. n.), E. myosurella Müll.Hal. ex Jaeger 1878 (nom. inv.), C. toowoombae (n. n.), E. toowoombae Müll.Hal. ex Geh. 1877 (n. n.)] SK02

Entodon plicatus Müll.Hal. 1845 [incl. E. flaccidisetus Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1890 (n. n.), Cylindrothecium novae-valesiae Hampe ex Geh. 1876 (n. n.), E. novae-valesiae Hampe 1878 (nom. inv.), Campylodontium pallidissimum Müll.Hal. ex Fleischer 1922 (n. n.), E. pallidissimus Fleischer 1922 (n. n.), E. pallidus Mitt. 1873, Cylindrothecium pallidum, E. pancherianus (Besch.) Jaeger 1878, E. tasmanicus Mitt. 1882, Cylindrothecium tasmanicum, E. terrae-reginae Dixon 1942] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

Khatun, H., & S. Hadiuzzaman. 2006. Pleurocarpous mosses of Bangladesh: family Entodontaceae. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 13 (2): 131-137.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Cryphaeaceae


Cryphaea tenella, photographed by imbala.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Cryphaeaceae are a family of mosses found worldwide, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions, distinguished by the combination of a corticolous habitat, a generally dull-coloured appearance, creeping primary stems with firm spreading-erect branches, immersed capsules, and a pale peristome (Reese 2002). Many species within the family are vegetatively very similar to each other; genera are distinguished by reproductive structures. Dendrocryphaea and Cyptodon are found associated with aquatic habitats, while Cryphaea and Schoenobryum are generally terrestrial and epiphytic (J. Enroth, 2012, Australian Mosses Online).

Characters (from Reese 2002, Bryophyte Flora of North America): Plants small to medium in size, mostly dull, with creeping primary stems bearing spreading to pendent branches, mostly brownish-green. Stems irregularly branched; paraphyllia lacking; pseudoparaphyllia lacking; two to four axillary hairs per axil, composed of 1-2 short proximal cells with brownish walls and 1-3 elongate distal cells. Branches short to elongate, simple to much-branched, terete. Leaves spirally inserted, imbricate, rapidly spreading when moistened, mostly ovate-acuminate, margins entire, or serrate distally, apex mostly acute; costa single; medial cells rhomboidal to fusiform, smooth to prorulose; alar cells rounded to quadrate. Sexual condition autoicous. Perigonia gemmiform, small, axillary. Perichaetia gemmiform, axillary or terminal on branches. Seta single, very short. Capsule immersed, erect, symmetric, stomates scanty, proximal; annulus usually revoluble; operculum conic-rostrate; peristome mostly double, pale; exostome of 16 teeth; endostome of 16 small linear segments or lacking, cilia lacking. Calyptra mitrate or subcucullate, smooth to papillose. Spores spherical, mostly granular to papillose, sometimes smooth.

<==Cryphaeaceae
    |--Scopelophila N02
    |--Dendropogon Schimp. 1843 SK02
    |--Schoenobryum Dozy & Molk. 1848 SK02
    |    `--S. concavifolium (Griff.) Gangulee 1976 SK02
    |--Dendrocryphaea Paris & Schimp. ex Broth. 1905 SK02
    |    |--D. gorveana D03
    |    `--D. tasmanica (Mitt.) Broth. 1905 [=Cryphaea tasmanica Mitt. 1859; incl. C. novae-zelandiae] SK02
    |--Cyptodon (Broth.) Paris & Schimp. 1894 SK02
    |    |--C. dilatatus (Hooker & Wilson) Paris & Schimp. 1914 [=Cryphaea dilatata; incl. Cr. confusa] SK02
    |    `--C. muelleri (Hampe) Fleischer 1914 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--Cryphaea Mohr & Weber 1814 SK02
         |--C. acuminata SK02
         |--C. ovalifolia (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1876 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--C. parvula Mitt. 1867 SK02
         |--C. reticulata J87
         `--C. tenella (Schwägr.) Hornsch. ex Müll.Hal. 1845 (see below for synonymy) SK02

Nomina nuda: Cryphaea cochlearifolia Hooker & Wilson ex Hampe 1880 SK02
             Cryphaea flexinervis Broth. ex Bailey 1891 SK02
             Cryphaea mollis Dusén 1903 D03

Cryphaea ovalifolia (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1876 [=Pilotrichum ovalifolium, Cryphidium ovalifolium, Cyptodon ovalifolius (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1914, Philodora ovalifolia; incl. Cryphaea crenulata, Cryphidium crenulatum, Cyptodon crenulatus, Dendropogon crenulatus, Cryphaea squarrulosa, Cryphidium squarrulosum, Cyptodon squarrosulus, Dendropogon squarrulosus, D. squarrosulus (l. c.)] SK02

Cryphaea tenella (Schwägr.) Hornsch. ex Müll.Hal. 1845 [=Neckera tenella, Pilotrichum tenellum; incl. Cryphaea brevidens, C. consimilis, C. exannulata Dixon & Sainsbury 1945, C. pusilla] SK02

Cyptodon muelleri (Hampe) Fleischer 1914 [=Dendropogon muelleri, Cryphaea muelleri, Cryphidium muelleri, Pilotrichum muelleri; incl. Cryphaea viridissima Müll.Hal. ex Paris 1894 (n. n.), Dendropogon viridissimus Müll.Hal. 1914] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903b. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Stenopelmatidae


Male Schizodactylus hesperus, from Gorochov (2001).


Beongs within: Ensifera.
Contains: Gryllacridinae, Stenopelmatinae.

The Stenopelmatidae is a family of mostly large orthopterans found around the world, with most of its range occupied by the subfamily Gryllacridinae while the other subfamilies have more restricted ranges. Many authors have referred to this family by the junior name Gryllacrididae; others have treated Gryllacrididae and Stenopelmatidae as separate families. Gorochov (2001) proposed a phylogeny for the family, but gave few explicit explanations for his proposals; in particular, the family lacks clear autapomorphies.

Characters (from Gorochov 2001): Tarsi with four segments, and with varied pulvilli at sole (distal segment with two pulvilli, of which distal pulvillus sometimes paired, or without pulvilli); tympana absent; hind femora without chevron ridges; femoro-abdominal stridulatory apparatus developed (in which case abdominal stridulatory areas with rows of large denticles) or absent; cerci with or without bulb-like sensilla at inner proximal part; ovipositor well-developed (with lower parts of its upper valvae completely covering lower valvae on outside) or reduced.

<==Stenopelmatidae
    |  i. s.: Eugryllacris G01
    |         Dictyogryllacris G01
    |         Diaphanogryllacris laeta G01
    |         Borneogryllacris G01
    |--+--Gryllacridinae G01
    |  `--Schizodactylinae [Schizodactylidae] G01
    |       |--Comicini G01
    |       `--Schizodactylus [Schizodactylini] G01
    |            `--S. hesperus G01
    `--+--Siinae G01
       |    |--Sia G01
       |    `--Maxentius pinguis G01
       `--+--Stenopelmatinae G01
          `--Oryctopinae G01
               |--Oryctopus [Oryctopini] G01
               |    `--O. prodigiosus G01
               `--Oryctopterus [Oryctopterini] G01
                    `--O. lagenipes G01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).