Palaeodictyoptera

Reconstruction of Homoioptera vorhallensis, from here.


Belongs within: Pterygota.
Contains: Eugereonoidea, Spilapteroidea.

The Palaeodictyoptera are a group of usually large (sometimes extremely large) plant-sucking insects known from the latest Early Carboniferous to the Late Permian (Sinitshenkova 2002).

Characters (from Sinitshenkova 2002, as Dictyoneurida): Body stout, large to very large (up to 50 cm wingspread or more). Integument rather thick, finely granulated. Head with sucking beak moderately to very long, directed obliquely forward. Prothoracic paranota either circular or, usually, forming winglets. Wings spread permanently (not folding over abdomen at rest). Both wing pairs similar except minor venational differences and wider base of hind wing, with either rich archedictyon or numerous cross-veins (exceptionally cross-veins less common, forming transverse rows), sometimes with evident nygmata, often brightly patterned. Longitudinal veins straight or gently curved, rarely with CuP and A more strongly curved; occasionally merging for a distance and then more sharply bent. C often running submarginally, leaving narrow precostal space.

<==Palaeodictyoptera [Dictyoneurida, Paleodictyoptera]
    |  i. s.: Rochdalia parkeri K-P83
    |         Idoptilus onisciformis K-P83
    |         Stenodictya lobata GE05
    |         Mazothairos GE05
    |         Moravia grandis GE05
    |--Frankenholziina S02
    |    |--Frankenholzioidea S02
    |    |    |--Psychroptilus Z02 [Psychroptilidae S02]
    |    |    `--+--Frankenholziidae S02
    |    |       `--Dictyoneurellidae S02
    |    `--Arcioneuroidea S02
    |         |--Arcioneuridae S02
    |         |--Elmoboriidae S02
    |         `--+--Eubrodia Carpenter 1967 [Eubrodiidae] S02
    |            `--Eukuloja [Eukulojidae] S02
    |                 `--E. cubitalis S02
    `--Dictyoneurina S02
         |  i. s.: Archaeoptilidae S02
         |         Lithoptilidae S02
         |         Mecynoptera tuberculata S02
         |--+--Eugereonoidea S02
         |  `--Dictyoneuroidea S02
         |       |--Peromapteridae S02
         |       |--Saarlandiidae S02
         |       `--Palaeoneura [Dictyoneuridae] S02
         |            `--P. giligonensis S02
         `--+--+--Breyerioidea S02
            |  |    |--Breyeriidae S02
            |  |    |--Stobsiidae S02
            |  |    `--Cryptoveniidae S02
            |  `--Calvertielloidea S02
            |       |--Mongolodictyidae S02
            |       `--Sharovia [Calvertiellidae] S02
            |            `--S. sojanica S02
            `--+--Spilapteroidea S02
               `--Homoiopteroidea S02
                    |--Heolidae S02
                    `--Homoiopteridae S02
                         |--Homoioptera vorhallensis S02 [=Homaloneura vorhallensis Z02]
                         |--Parathesoneura carpenteri Sharov & Sinichenkova 1977 K-P83
                         |--Mazonopterum wolfforum Kukalová-Peck & Richardson 1983 K-P83
                         |--Ostrava nigra (Kukalová 1960) K-P83
                         |--Adolarryia bairdi Kukalová-Peck & Richardson 1983 K-P83
                         `--Monsteropterum moravicum Kukalová-Peck 1972 K-P83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618-1669.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Superorder Dictyoneuridea Handlirsch, 1906 (=Palaeodictyopteroidea). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 115-124. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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