Arrowleaf sida Sida rhombifolia, copyright Tony Rodd.

Belongs within: Malvoideae.

Sida is a widespread genus of herbs and shrubs found in warmer regions of the world. They produce yellow or orange, bisexual flowers that develop into schizocarp fruits with hard, often indehiscent mericarps (Harden 1990).

Characters (from Harden 1990): Herbs or shrubs with stellate hairs. Leaves shallowly lobed or more often unlobed, margins entire to toothed; petioles usually short. Flowers axillary, solitary or in terminal heads or spikes; peduncles often jointed. Epicalyx absent. Calyx 5-lobed, often 10-ribbed at base in fruit. Petals yellow to orange. Staminal tube slender. Ovary 5–10-locular, each loculus 1-ovulate; styles as many as loculi; stigmas terminal, capitate. Fruit a schizocarp; mericarps indehiscent or 2-valved.

    |--S. acuta LK14
    |--S. ammophila M99
    |--S. argillacea Z94
    |--S. atrovirens G04
    |--S. brachypoda LK14
    |--S. calyxhymenia KM08
    |--S. carpinifolia C55
    |--S. chrysocalyx G04
    |--S. cordata PP07
    |--S. cordifolia M99 [incl. S. africana C55, S. altheifolia C55]
    |--S. corrugata KM08
    |--S. cunninghamii [incl. S. pedunculata] H90
    |--S. diffusa BTA75
    |--S. echinocarpa EF04
    |--S. everistiana Z94
    |--S. fibulifera KM08
    |--S. filiformis EF04
    |--S. goniocarpa Z94
    |--S. hackettiana LK14
    |--S. hookeriana GK00
    |--S. humilis C55
    |--S. intricata Z94
    |--S. juncea C55
    |--S. kingii EF04
    |--S. linifolia [incl. S. linearifolia] C55
    |--S. macropoda LK14
    |--S. maculata S66
    |--S. periplocifolia [=Abutilon periplocifolium] C55
    |--S. petrophila H90
    |--S. phaeotricha [=S. virgata var. phaeotricha; incl. S. cryphiopetala] H90
    |--S. platycalyx M99
    |--S. pleiantha H90
    |--S. procumbens BT72
    |--S. pusilla LK14
    |--S. rhombica B28
    |--S. rhombifolia DP72
    |--S. rohlenae LK14
    |    |--S. r. ssp. rohlenae LK14
    |    `--S. r. ssp. occidentalis LK14
    |--S. spicata Z94
    |--S. spinosa M99
    |--S. stipulata [incl. S. prostrata] C55
    |--S. subcordata LK14
    |--S. subspicata Z94
    |--S. tiagii PP07
    `--S. trichopoda M99

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1–110.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. On the birds in the vicinity of Lima, Peru. With notes on their habits, by Prof. W. Nation, of Lima, C. M. Z. S. (Part I.) Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 96–100.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 25 July 2021.

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