Sulphur-crested cockatoo Cacatua galerita, copyright Arthur Chapman.

Belongs within: Psittaciformes.

The Cacatuidae, cockatoos, are a group of parrots found in Australasia and the islands of south-east Asia, characterised by the presence of a long, erectile crest (Rutgers & Norris 1972). Most species are large, noisy and gregarious. The cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus is a smaller, slender, long-tailed species that has become widely kept as a cage bird.

<==Cacatuidae [Cacatoinae, Cacatuidae, Cacatuoidea, Kakatoeidae, Kakatoeinae]
    |--‘Calyptorhynchus’ banksii (Latham 1790) BKB15, WS48 [=Psittacus banksii WS48]
    |    |--C. b. banksii WS48
    |    |--C. b. graptogyne M03
    |    |--C. b. macrorhynchus M03 [=C. magnificus macrorhynchus RN72]
    |    |--C. b. naso Gould 1836 WS48 [=C. magnificus naso RN72; incl. C. banksii fitzroyi Mathews 1912 WS48]
    |    `--C. b. samueli M03 [=C. magnificus samueli RN72]
    `--+--+--Nymphicus Wagler 1832 BKB15, JoTo12 (see below for synonymy)
       |  |    |--N. cornutus S13
       |  |    |--N. hollandicus (Kerr 1792) JeTh12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
       |  |    |--‘Calopsittacus’ novaehollaendiae R87
       |  |    `--N. uveaensis S13
       |  `--Calyptorhynchus Desmarest 1826 BKB15, JoTo12 [incl. Zanda JoTo12; Calyptorhynchinae]
       |       |--C. baudinii Lear 1832 JK08 (see below for synonymy)
       |       |--C. funereus JeTh12
       |       |--C. lathami CW03
       |       |    |--C. l. lathami CW03
       |       |    |--C. l. erebus M03
       |       |    `--C. l. halmaturinus CW03
       |       |--C. latirostris Carnaby 1948 JeTh12, JK08 [=C. funereus latirostris SWK87]
       |       `--C. magnificus ZJM03
       `--Cacatuinae JoTo12
            |--Probosciger Kuhl 1820 (see below for synonymy) JoTo12
            |    `--P. aterrimus JeTh12
            |         |--P. a. aterrimus RN72
            |         |--P. a. alecto RN72
            |         |--P. a. goliath RN72
            |         |--P. a. intermedius RN72
            |         `--P. a. stenolophus RN72
            `--Cacatuini JoTo12
                 |--Lophochroa JoTo12
                 |--Callocephalon Lesson 1837 JoTo12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                 |    `--C. fimbriatum JeTh12
                 `--Cacatua Vieillot 1817 JoTo12 (see below for synonymy)
                      |  i. s.: C. leadbeateri (Vigors 1831) JeTh12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                      |         C. pastinator (Gould 1840) JK08, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                      |           |--C. p. pastinator JK08
                      |           `--C. p. butleri JK08
                      |         C. tenuirostris (Kuhl 1820) JeTh12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                      |--C. roseicapilla (Vieillot 1817) JeTh12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      |    |--C. r. roseicapilla M03
                      |    `--C. r. albiceps M03
                      `--+--+--C. haematuropygia JeTh12
                         |  `--+--C. goffiniana JeTh12 [=C. sanguinea goffini RN72]
                         |     `--+--C. ducorpsii JeTh12
                         |        `--C. sanguinea Gould 1842 JeTh12, WS48 [=Kakatoe sanguinea WS48]
                         |             |--C. s. sanguinea WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                         |             |--C. s. gymnopis M03 [=C. (Licmetis) gymnopis R87, C. pastinator gymnopis SWK87]
                         |             `--C. s. normantoni M03
                         `--+--C. ophthalmica JeTh12 [=C. galerita ophthalmica]
                            `--+--+--C. alba (Statius Müller 1776) JeTh12, CC10 [incl. *C. cristata Vieillot 1817 CC10]
                               |  `--C. moluccensis JeTh12
                               `--+--C. galerita (Latham 1790) JeTh12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |    |--C. g. galerita RN72 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |    `--C. g. triton RN72
                                  `--C. sulphurea JeTh12
                                       |--C. s. sulphurea RN72
                                       |--C. s. abbotti RN72
                                       |--C. s. citrinocristata RN72
                                       |--C. s. djampeana RN72
                                       |--C. s. occidentalis RN72
                                       `--C. s. parvula RN72

Cacatua Vieillot 1817 JoTo12 [incl. Cacatoes Duméril 1805 B94, Camptolophus Sundevall 1872 B94, Eolophus Bonaparte 1854 CC10, Kakatoe Cuvier 1800 B94, Plissolophus Gloger 1842 B94, Plyctolophus Vieillot 1816 B94; Camptolophinae, Eolophinae, Plissolophinae, Plyctolophinae]

Cacatua galerita (Latham 1790) JeTh12, CC10 [=Psittacus galeritus CC10, Kakatoe galerita CC10]

Cacatua galerita galerita (Latham 1790) CC10 [incl. Cacatoes galerita fitzroyi Mathews 1912 WS48, Cacatua galerita fitzroyi M03]

Cacatua leadbeateri (Vigors 1831) JeTh12, WS48 [=Plyctolophus leadbeateri WS48, Kakatoe leadbeateri WS48; incl. Cacatua leadbeateri aberrans Söderberg 1912 WS48, Cacatoes leadbeateri mollis Mathews 1912 WS48, Cacatua leadbeateri mollis M03, Cacatoes leadbeateri mungi Mathews 1912 WS48]

Cacatua pastinator (Gould 1840) JK08, WS48 [=Licmetis pastinator WS48, C. tenuirostris pastinator RN72]

Cacatua roseicapilla (Vieillot 1817) JeTh12, CC10 [=Eolophus roseicapillus CC10, Kakatoe roseicapilla WS48; incl. Cacatoes roseicapilla assimilis Mathews 1912 WS48, Cacatua roseicapilla assimilis M03, Eolophus roseicapillus assiniclis RN72, Cacatoes roseicapilla derbyana Mathews 1912 WS48, Cacatua rosea CC10, *Eolophus roseus CC10]

Cacatua sanguinea sanguinea Gould 1842 WS48 [incl. Licmetis tenuirostris derbyi Mathews 1916 WS48, Cacatua derbyi M03, Cacatoes sanguinea subdistincta Mathews 1912 WS48, Cacatua sanguinea subdistincta RN72, Ducorpsius sanguineus westralensis Mathews 1917 WS48, Cacatua sanguinea westralensis M03]

Cacatua tenuirostris (Kuhl 1820) JeTh12, WS48 [=Psittacus tenuirostris WS48, Kakatoe tenuirostris WS48]

Callocephalon Lesson 1837 JoTo12, B94 [incl. Callocorydon Mathews 1917 B94; Callocephaloninae, Callocorydontinae]

Calyptorhynchus baudinii Lear 1832 JK08 [=C. funereus baudinii RN72; incl. C. baudinii tenuirostris Mathews 1913 WS48]

Nymphicus Wagler 1832 JoTo12 [incl. Calopsittus Lesson 1835 B94, Leptolophus Swainson 1833 B94; Calopsittinae, Leptolophinae, Nymphicidae, Nymphicinae]

Nymphicus hollandicus (Kerr 1792) JeTh12, WS48 [=Psittacus hollandicus WS48, Leptolophus hollandicus WS48; incl. L. auricomis intermedius Mathews 1912 WS48, L. auricomis pallescens Mathews 1912 WS48]

Probosciger Kuhl 1820 [incl. Microglossus Vieillot 1822; Microglossinae, Microglossini, Proboscigerini] JoTo12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CW03] Cooper, C. E., P. C. Withers, P. R. Mawson, R. Johnstone, T. Kirkby, J. Prince, S. D. Bradshaw & H. Robertson. 2003. Characteristics of marri (Corymbia calophylla) fruits in relation to the foraging behaviour of the forest red-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 86 (4): 139–142.

[JeTh12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JK08] Johnstone, R. E., & T. Kirkby. 2008. Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin's cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in south-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 107–118.

[JoTo12] Joseph, L., A. Toon, E. E. Schirtzinger, T. F. Wright & R. Schodde. 2012. A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes). Zootaxa 3205: 26-40.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461–484.

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