Adult (left) and juvenile sacred kingfishers Todiramphus sanctus, copyright JJ Harrison.

Belongs within: Halcyonidae.

Todiramphus is a genus of medium-sized kingfishers with flattened bills found in southern Asia and Australasia. Species typically have blue or blue-green upperparts, pale underparts, and often a white collar and supercilium.

Todiramphus Lesson 1827 [=Todirhamphus Salvadori 1880; incl. Sauropatis Cabanis & Heine 1860] CC10
    |--T. winchelli JT12
    `--+--T. leucopygius JT12
       `--+--+--T. chloris (Boddaert 1783) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
          |  |    |--T. c. chloris WS48
          |  |    |--‘Halcyon’ c. chloroptera H03
          |  |    |--‘Halcyon’ c. novaehiberniae D77
          |  |    |--‘Halcyon’ c. nusae D77
          |  |    `--‘Halcyon’ c. sordida Gould 1842 [=H. sordidus] WS48
          |  `--T. sanctus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |--T. s. sanctus CC10
          |       |--T. s. canacorum Brasil 1916 CC10
          |       |--T. s. macmillani Mayr 1940 CC10
          |       |--T. s. norfolkiensis (Tristram 1885) (see below for synonymy) CC10
          |       `--T. s. vagans (Lesson 1828) (see below for synonymy) CC10
          `--+--T. macleayii (Jardine & Selby 1830) JT12, CC10 [=Halcyon macleayii CC10, T. (Lazulena) macleayii CC10]
             |    |--T. m. macleayii M03
             |    `--T. m. incinctus M03
             `--+--T. ruficollaris BKB15
                `--T. tutus JT12 [incl. *T. sacer CC10]

Todiramphus incertae sedis:
  T. albonotatus JT12
  T. australasia JT12
  T. cinnamominus (Swainson 1821) [=Halcyon cinnamominus] CC10
  T. collaris (Scopoli 1786) [=Alcedo collaris, Sauropatis collaris] W66
  T. diops JT12
  T. enigma JT12
  T. farquhari JT12
  T. funebris JT12
  T. gambieri JT12
  T. godeffroyi JT12
  T. lazuli JT12
  T. nigrocyaneus JT12
  T. occipitalis Blyth 1846 W66
  T. pyrrhopygius JT12
  T. recurvirostris JT12
  T. saurophaga JT12
  T. veneratus JT12

Todiramphus chloris (Boddaert 1783) JT12, WS48 [=Alcedo chloris W66, Halcyon chloris WS48, Sauropatis chloris S89; incl. A. chlorocephalus W66]

Todiramphus sanctus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) JT12, CC10 [=Halcyon sanctus CC10, *Sauropatis sancta CC10; incl. H. sanctus ramsayi Mathews 1912 WS48, H. westralasianus Campbell 1901 WS48]

Todiramphus sanctus norfolkiensis (Tristram 1885) [=Halcyon norfolkiensis, H. norfolciensis, H. sancta norfolkiensis, Sauropatis sancta norfolkiensis] CC10

Todiramphus sanctus vagans (Lesson 1828) [=Alcedo vagans, Dacelo vagans, Halcyon sancta vagans, Sauropatis sanctus vagans; incl. Dacelo albifrons Peale 1848, Alcedo cyanea Forster in Lichtenstein 1844, Sauropatis sanctus forsteri Mathews & Iredale 1913] CC10

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[D77] Diamond, J. M. 1977. Continental and insular speciation in Pacific land birds. Systematic Zoology 26 (3): 263–268.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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