Barking owl Ninox connivens, copyright Dash Huang.

Belongs within: Strigiformes.
Contains: Ninox novaeseelandiae, Athene, Glaucidium, Otus, Asio, Strix, Bubo, Megascops.

The Strigidae, typical owls, include all the living owls except the barn and grass owls. Members of this family have a round facial disc and relatively larger eyes than the barn owls, and lack a grooming claw on the middle toe. Historically, the typical owls have been divided between two sufamilies. The Striginae were characterised by a well-defined facial disc, and ear openings at least half the height of the skull, with a marginal dermal flap and a ligamentous or muscular bridge crossing the opening. The Buboninae, in contrast, lacked a strong facial disc and had smaller, simple ear openings. Recent phylogenies, however, have not supported this division, with the 'Striginae' being polyphyletic within the 'Buboninae'. Instead, the hawk-owls of the genus Ninox may diverge basally within the Strigidae; these relatively long-winged and -tailed owls are found in Asia and Australasia. Other genera include the boreal and saw-whet owls of the genus Aegolius, small, short-tailed and broad-winged owls with well-developed facial discs found in cooler regions of the Holarctic. Athene, the little owls, are also small, short-tailed species, but with less marked facial discs, found in Eurasia, north Africa and the Americas.

<==Strigidae [Bubonidae, Bubonina, Buboninae, Striginae]
    |--Ninox Hodgson 1837 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: N. affinis JT12
    |    |         N. burhani JT12
    |    |         N. ios JT12
    |    |         N. jacquinoti JT12
    |    |         N. meeki JT12
    |    |         N. natalis JT12 [=N. squamipila natalis M03]
    |    |         N. ochracea JT12
    |    |         N. odiosa JT12
    |    |         N. punctulata JT12
    |    |         N. sumbaensis JT12
    |    |         N. superciliaris JT12
    |    |         N. theomacha JT12
    |    |         N. variegata JT12
    |    |--N. philippensis BKB15
    |    `--+--N. scutulata BKB15
    |       |    |--N. s. scutulata CC10
    |       |    |--N. s. japonica M03
    |       |    `--N. s. lugubris [incl. *N. nipalensis] CC10
    |       `--+--+--N. rufa BKB15
    |          |  |    |--N. r. rufa CC10
    |          |  |    |--N. r. humeralis [=Athene humeralis, *Rhabdoglaux humeralis] CC10
    |          |  |    |--N. r. meesi M03
    |          |  |    `--N. r. queenslandica M03
    |          |  `--N. strenua JT12 [=Athene strenua CC10, *Berneyornis strenua CC10]
    |          `--+--+--N. boobook (Latham 1802) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |             |  `--N. rudolfi BKB15
    |             `--+--N. connivens (Latham 1801) BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    |                |    |--N. c. connivens (see below for synonymy) WS48
    |                |    `--N. c. peninsularis M03
    |                `--+--N. novaeseelandiae BKB15
    |                   `--N. squamipila JT12
    `--+--+--Micrathene whitneyi JT12
       |  `--+--Aegolius Kaup 1829 JT12, M02 [incl. Nyctale Brehm 1831 B94; Nyctalinae]
       |     |    |  i. s.: A. ridgwayi JT12
       |     |    |--A. funereus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |     |    |    |--A. f. funereus I92
       |     |    |    `--A. f. pallens (Schalow 1908) I92
       |     |    `--+--A. acadicus JT12
       |     |       `--A. harrisii JT12
       |     `--+--Athene JT12
       |        `--+--‘Glaucidium’ capense JT12
       |           `--+--Glaucidium JT12
       |              `--Surnia Duméril 1806 BKB15, M02 [Surniinae]
       |                   |--S. capeki Jánossy 1977 M02
       |                   |--s. doliata (Pall. 1811) [=Strix doliata] M01
       |                   |--S. robusta Jánossy 1977 M02
       |                   `--S. ulula JT12
       `--+--Otus JT12
          `--+--+--Asio JT12
             |  `--Ptilopsis BKB15
             |       |--P. granti JT12
             |       `--P. leucotis BKB15 [=Otus leucotis JT12]
             `--+--Strix BKB15
                `--+--Bubo BKB15
                   `--+--+--Megascops BKB15
                      |  `--+--Psiloscops flammeolus DW16 [=Otus flammeolus JT12]
                      |     `--‘Megascops’ nudipes DW16
                      `--+--Lophostrix cristata JT12
                         `--Pulsatrix BKB15
                              |--P. koeniswaldiana JT12
                              |--P. melanota JT12
                              `--P. perspicillata JT12
                                   |--P. p. perspicillata S55
                                   `--P. p. saturata S55

Strigidae incertae sedis:
  Mioglaux Mlíkovský 1998 M02
    |--*M. debellatrix Mlíkovský 1998 M02
    `--M. poirrieri (Milne-Edwards 1863) [=Bubo poirrieri] M02
  Intulula Mlíkovský 1998 M02
    |--*I. tinnipara Mlíkovský 1998 M02
    `--I. brevis (Ballmann 1969) [=Strix brevis] M02
  Alasio Mlíkovský 1998 M02
    `--*A. collongensis (Ballmann 1972) [=Strix collongensis] M02
  Speotyto cunicularia RN72, A61
  Rhinoptynx clamator S18
  Ciccaba S18
    |--C. albogularis S55
    |--C. huhula S55
    |--C. nigrolineata S55
    |--C. virgata S55
    |    |--C. v. virgata FS55
    |    `--C. v. centralis FS55
    `--C. woodfordi S55
         |--C. w. woodfordi S55
         `--C. w. umbrina S55
  Sceloglaux Kaup 1848 CC10
    `--*S. albifacies (Gray 1844) [=Athene albifacies, Ieraglaux albifacies, A. albifrons Taylor 1870] CC10
         |--S. a. albifacies [incl. Athene ejulans Potts 1871, Strix haasti Buller 1865, Strix haastii] CC10
         `--S. a. rufifacies Buller 1904 CC10
  Margarobyas lawrencii DW16
  Nesasio solomonensis FP64
  Scotopelia JT12
    |--S. bouvieri JT12
    |--S. peli A61
    `--S. ussheri JT12
  Badiostes Ameghino 1894 A94
    `--*B. patagonicus Ameghino 1894 A94
  Uroglaux dimorpha JT12
  Xenoglaux loweryi JT12
  Heteroglaux blewitti JT12
  Jubula lettii JT12
  Gymnoglaux lawrencii JT12

Aegolius funereus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Strix funerea M02; incl. Athene noctua veta Jánossy 1974 M02]

Ninox Hodgson 1837 JT12, CC10 [incl. Berneyornis Mathews 1916 CC10, Hieracoglaux Kaup 1848 CC10, Ieraglaux Kaup in Jardine 1852 CC10, Rhabdoglaux Bonaparte 1854 CC10, Spiloglaux Kaup 1848 CC10; Ieraglaucinae]

Ninox boobook (Latham 1802) BKB15, CC10 [=Strix boobook CC10, N. novaeseelandiae boobook CC10, *Spiloglaux boobook CC10]

Ninox connivens (Latham 1801) BKB15, WS48 [=Falco connivens CC10, *Hieracoglaux connivens CC10, *Ieraglaux connivens CC10]

Ninox connivens connivens (Latham 1801) [incl. N. connivens addenda Mathews 1912, N. connivens occidentalis Ramsay 1886] WS48

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A94] Ameghino, F. 1894. Sur les oiseaux fossiles de Patagonie et la aune mammalogique des couches a Pyrotherium. Boletín del Instituto Geográfico Argentino 15 (11–12): 501–602.

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[DW16] Dantas, S. M., J. D. Weckstein, J. M. Bates, N. K. Krabbe, C. D. Cadena, M. B. Robbins, E. Valderrama & A. Aleixo. 2016. Molecular systematics of the New World screech-owls (Megascops: Aves, Strigidae): biogeographic and taxonomic implications. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 626–634.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[S55] Steinbacher, J. 1955. Über die Schwanzmauser der Eulen (Strigidae) und Nachtschwalben (Caprimulgidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 235–240.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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