Strisores

Little nightjar Caprimulgus parvulus, copyright Jairmoreirafotografia.


Belongs within: Neognathae.
Contains: Caprimulgus, Chordeiles, Nyctibiidae, Podargidae, Daedalornithes.

The Strisores is a clade of birds including the members of the commonly recognised orders 'Caprimulgiformes' and Apodiformes with the former now recognised as paraphyletic to the latter. Members of the clade are united by possession of a greatly elongated leg (crus longum) of the ulnar carpal bone (Mayr 2009). All members of the traditional Caprimulgiformes are crepuscular or nocturnal birds with wide beaks, a large gape, and soft cryptically-coloured plumage, that feed on the wing (most are insectivores; the oilbird Steatornis caripensis is frugivorous); Apodiformes have lost some of these characters, but still feed on the wing. Morphological support for the total group of Caprimulgiformes (including Apodiformes) is, however, uncertain.

Within the Strisores, the Caprimulgidae include the nightjars, a cosmopolitan group of nocturnal insectivorous birds. Nightjars are cryptically coloured in mottled brown. The family has historically been divided between subfamilies Caprimulginae and Chordeilinae based on the presence of strong rictal bristles around the mouth of the former, but this division has not been supported by recent phylogenetic analyses. Instead, the eared nightjars of the genus Eurostopodus represent the most basal members of the Caprimulgidae; these large Australasian nightjars lack rictal bristles and possess more or less developed ear tufts.

The Steatornithidae are represented in the modern fauna by a single species, the oilbird Steatornis caripensis of northern South America. This large bird, reddish-brown with white spots on the nape and wings, nest colonially in caves, using echolocation to find their way in the dark. The Fluvioviridavidae are wide-billed, fossil birds known from the Eocene of Europe and North America.

<==Strisores [Caprimulgi, Caprimulgimorphae, Cypselomorphae, Podarginae] PB15
    |--Caprimulgidae [Aereae, Caprimulgiformes, Caprimulginae, Glabrirostres, Setirostres, Terricolae] PB15
    |    |  i. s.: Lyncornis temminckii S55
    |    |         Nannochordeiles pusillus S55
    |    |           |--N. p. pusillus S55
    |    |           `--N. p. septentrionalis S55
    |    |         Semeiophorus Gould 1838 B94
    |    |           `--S. vexillarius MMJ03
    |    |         Scotornis Swainson 1837 [Scotornithinae] B94
    |    |           `--S. climacurus S55
    |    |                |--S. c. climacurus S55
    |    |                `--S. c. clarus S55
    |    |         Stenopsis S66a
    |    |           |--S. bifasciata S66b (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |--S. cayanensis S66b [=Caprimulgus cayanensis S66a; incl. C. cayanus S66a, C. leopetes S66a]
    |    |           |    |--S. c. cayanensis S18
    |    |           |    `--S. c. albicauda S18
    |    |           |--S. langsdorfi Pelzeln in Sclater 1866 S66b
    |    |           |--S. platura Pelzeln in Sclater 1866 [=Caprimulgus platurus] S66b
    |    |           `--S. ruficervix Sclater 1866 S66a
    |    |         Macropsalis Sclater 1866 S66a
    |    |           |--M. forcipata JT12 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |--M. lyra [=Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) lyra] S66a
    |    |           |--M. segmentata Cassin 1849 [=Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) segmentata] S66a
    |    |           `--M. ypanemae von Pelzeln 1865 [=Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) ypanemae] S66a
    |    |         Antrostomus S66a
    |    |           |--A. cubanensis Lawrence 1860 S66b
    |    |           |--A. macromystax [=Caprimulgus macromystax] S66a
    |    |           |--A. maculicaudus [=Stenopsis maculicaudus] S66b
    |    |           |--A. nuttalli [=Caprimulgus nuttalli] S66a
    |    |           |--A. ocellatus (see below for synonymy) S66a
    |    |           |--A. ornatus Sclater 1866 S66b
    |    |           |--A. rutilus S66b
    |    |           `--A. sericeocaudatus S66b
    |    |         Ventivorus Mourer-Chauviré 1988 M09, M02
    |    |           `--*V. ragei Mourer-Chauviré 1988 M02
    |    |--‘Eurostopodus’ macrotis BKB15
    |    `--+--Eurostopodus Gould 1838 BKB15, B94 [Eurostopodidae]
    |       |    |  i. s.: E. albogularis R87
    |       |    |         E. archboldi JT12
    |       |    |         E. diabolicus FP64
    |       |    |         E. guttatus (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) [=Caprimulgus guttatus] WS48
    |       |    |         E. temminckii H03
    |       |    |--E. papuensis JT12
    |       |    `--+--E. argus JT12
    |       |       `--E. mystacalis JT12
    |       `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ enarratus BKB15
    |          `--+--+--+--Caprimulgus JT12
    |             |  |  `--Chordeiles BKB15
    |             |  `--+--Siphonorhis BKB15
    |             |     |    |--S. americana (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L58 [=Caprimulgus americanus S66a]
    |             |     |    `--S. brewsteri JT12 [=S. americana brewsteri FP64]
    |             |     `--+--Nyctiphrynus JT12
    |             |        |    |--N. rosenbergi JT12
    |             |        |    `--+--N. mcleodii JT12
    |             |        |       `--+--N. ocellatus JT12
    |             |        |          `--N. yucatanicus JT12
    |             |        `--+--Phalaenoptilus nuttallii JT12
    |             |           `--+--+--‘Caprimulgus’ saturatus BKB15
    |             |              |  `--‘Caprimulgus’ vociferus JT12 [=Antrostomus vociferus S66a]
    |             |              `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ ridgwayi BKB15
    |             |                 `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ salvini BKB15
    |             |                    `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ carolinensis JT12 [=Antrostomus carolinensis S66a]
    |             |                       `--‘Caprimulgus’ rufus JT12 [=Antrostomus rufus S66a; incl. Ca. cortopao S66a]
    |             `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ sericocaudatus BKB15
    |                `--+--Lurocalis BKB15
    |                   |    |--L. rufiventris BKB15
    |                   |    `--+--L. nattereri BKB15 [=Caprimulgus nattereri S66a, Chordeiles nattereri S66a]
    |                   |       `--L. semitorquatus BKB15 (see below for synonymy)
    |                   `--+--Nyctiprogne JT12
    |                      |    |--N. leucopyga JT12
    |                      |    `--N. vielliardi JT12
    |                      `--+--+--‘Caprimulgus’ nigrescens JT12 (see below for synonymy)
    |                         |  `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ anthonyi JT12
    |                         |     `--Nyctidromus Gould 1838 JT12, B94 [Nyctidrominae]
    |                         |          `--N. albicollis (see below for synonymy) S66a
    |                         |               |--N. a. albicollis FS55
    |                         |               `--N. a. intercedens FS55
    |                         `--+--Uropsalis JT12
    |                            |    |--U. lyra JT12
    |                            |    `--U. segmentata JT12
    |                            `--+--+--‘Caprimulgus’ longirostris BKB15 (see below for synonymy)
    |                               |  `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ parvulus Gould 1837 BKB15, S66a (see below for synonymy)
    |                               |     `--‘Caprimulgus’ whitelyi BKB15
    |                               `--+--Eleothreptus BKB15
    |                                  |    |--E. anomalus (Gould 1837) JT12, S66a (see below for synonymy)
    |                                  |    `--E. candicans JT12 (see below for synonymy)
    |                                  `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ maculicaudus BKB15
    |                                     `--+--‘Caprimulgus’ cayennensis JT12
    |                                        `--Hydropsalis JT12
    |                                             |  i. s.: H. (Diplopsalis) S66a
    |                                             |           |--H. (D.) schomburgki S66a
    |                                             |           `--H. (D.) trifurcata [incl. H. climacocerca] S66a
    |                                             |--H. climacocerca BKB15
    |                                             `--+--H. brasiliana BKB15
    |                                                `--H. (Hydropsalis) S66a
    |                                                     |--H. (H.) furcifera [=Caprimulgus furcifer] S66a
    |                                                     |--H. (H.) pallescens von Pelzeln 1865 S66a
    |                                                     `--H. (H.) torquata BKB15, S66a (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--+--Nyctibiidae BKB15
       |  `--Steatornithidae [Steatornithes, Steatornithiformes, Steatornithinae] BKB15
       |       |--Prefica Olson 1987 M03, M02 [Preficinae]
       |       |    `--P. nivea Olson 1987 M03
       |       `--Steatornis Humboldt 1814 PB15, B94
       |            `--S. caripensis [incl. Caprimulgus steatornis] S66a
       `--+--+--Podargidae PB15
          |  `--Fluvioviridavidae M05b
          |       |--Fluvioviridavis Mayr & Daniels 2001 PB15, M05b
          |       |    `--F. platyrhamphus Mayr & Daniels 2001 M05b
          |       `--Eurofluvioviridavis Mayr 2005 M05b
          |            `--*E. robustipes Mayr 2005 M05b
          `--Daedalornithes PB15

Strisores incertae sedis:
  Archaeotrogonidae M04
    |--Hassiavis Mayr 1998 M04
    |    `--*H. laticauda Mayr 1998 M02
    `--Archaeotrogon Milne-Edwards 1892 M02
         |--*A. venustus Milne-Edwards 1892 M02, M09
         |--A. cayluxensis (Lydekker 1891) [=Palaeortyx cayluxensis, Ludiortyx cayluxensis] M02
         |--A. hoffstetteri Mourer-Chauviré 1980 M09
         |--A. nocturnus Mlíkovský 2002 (see below for synonymy) M02
         `--A. zitteli Gaillard 1908 M09
  Microena Harrison & Walker 1977 M05a
    `--*M. goodwini Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
  Protocypselomorphus manfredkelleri Mayr 2005 M09

Antrostomus ocellatus [=Caprimulgus ocellatus; incl. C. brasilianus, C. brasiliensis, C. lunulatus Natt. in Sclater 1866 (n. n.)] S66a

Archaeotrogon nocturnus Mlíkovský 2002 [=A. cayluxensis Gaillard 1908 non Palaeortyx cayluxensis Lydekker 1891] M02

‘Caprimulgus’ longirostris BKB15 [=Antrostomus longirostris S66a, Stenopsis longirostris S66a]

‘Caprimulgus’ nigrescens JT12 [=Antrostomus nigrescens S66a, Stenopsis nigrescens S66a]

‘Caprimulgus’ parvulus Gould 1837 BKB15, S66a [=Antrostomus parvulus S66a; incl. C. mixtus S66a]

Eleothreptus anomalus (Gould 1837) JT12, S66a [=Amblypterus anomalus S66a, Heleothreptus anomalus S66a]

Eleothreptus candicans JT12 [=Caprimulgus candicans BKB15, Stenopsis candicans S66b; incl. C. leucurus S66b]

Hydropsalis (Hydropsalis) torquata BKB15, S66a [=Caprimulgus torquatus S66a; incl. H. azarae Wagl. 1883 S66a, Psalurus macropterus S66a, Caprimulgus psalurus S66a, Hydropsalis psalurus S66a]

Lurocalis semitorquatus BKB15 [=Caprimulgus semitorquatus S66a, Chordeiles semitorquatus S66a; incl. Podager gouldi S66a]

Macropsalis forcipata JT12 [=Caprimulgus forcipatus S66a, Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) forcipata S66a; incl. H. limbatus S66a, Caprimulgus megalurus Licht. in Sclater 1866 (n. n.) S66a]

Nyctidromus albicollis [=Caprimulgus albicollis; incl. N. affinis, N. americanus Cassin 1851, N. derbyanus, N. grallarius, Caprimulgus guianensis, N. guianensis] S66a

Stenopsis bifasciata S66b [=Caprimulgus bifasciatus S66a; incl. C. conterminus S66a, C. decussatus S66a]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. On the phylogenetic relationships of trogons (Aves, Trogonidae). Journal of Avian Biology 34 (1): 81–88.

[M04] Mayr, G. 2004. New specimens of Hassiavis laticauda (Aves: Cypselomorphae) and Quasisyndactylus longibrachis (Aves: Alcediniformes) from the Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 252: 23–28.

[M05a] Mayr, G. 2005a. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M05b] Mayr, G. 2005b. A Fluvioviridavis-like bird from the Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 42: 2021–2037.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MMJ03] Mayr, G., A. Manegold & U. S. Johansson. 2003. Monophyletic groups within ‘higher land birds’—comparison of morphological and molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 233–248.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[PB15] Prum, R. O., J. S. Berv, A. Dornburg, D. J. Field, J. P. Townsend, E. M. Lemmon & A. R. Lemmon. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526: 569–573.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. Descriptions of Australian birds' eggs. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1141–1152, pl. 19.

[S66a] Sclater, P. L. 1866a. Notes upon the American Caprimulgidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 123–145.

[S66b] Sclater, P. L. 1866b. Additional notes on the Caprimulgidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 581–590.

[S55] Steinbacher, J. 1955. Über die Schwanzmauser der Eulen (Strigidae) und Nachtschwalben (Caprimulgidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 235–240.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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