Stylidiaceae

Stylidium turleyae, copyright William Archer.


Belongs within: Asterales.
Contains: Stylidium subgenus Tolypangium.

The Stylidiaceae are a Gondwanan group of mostly herbaceous plants in which flowers have the stamens and style fused in a central column.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Mostly herbs, with simple alternate or rosulate leaves usually without stipules. Flowers irregular, bisexual; sepals 5, persistent, inserted at summit of hollow adnate receptacle; corolla deeply five-lobed, tube short, lower or anterior lobe (labellum) smaller than others and different in shape; stamens 2, lateral, filaments connate with style in a column or gynostemium; anthers sessile at summit of column, two-celled, opening outwards, often concealing entire or two-lobed stigma; ovary inferior, more or less two-celled or almost one-celled, with numerous or few anatropous ovules; fruit a capsule opening from summit in two valves; seeds small, embryo minute, enclosed in fleshy albumen.

<==Stylidiaceae [Stylidieae]
    |--Oreostylidium Bergg. 1878 A61, ME70
    |    `--O. subulatum (Hooker) Bergg. 1878 A61, ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Phyllachne Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |    |--P. clavigera (Hooker) Muell. 1873 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. colensoi (Hooker) Bergg. 1877 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. rubra (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 [=Helophyllum rubrum Hooker 1864] A61
    |    `--P. uliginosa CL85
    |--Levenhookia BR65
    |    |--L. dubia BR65
    |    |--L. leptantha LK00
    |    |--L. pusilla BR65
    |    `--L. stipitata OS04
    |--Forstera Linn. f. 1780 A61
    |    |--F. bidwillii Hooker 1853 [incl. F. major Colenso 1899, F. truncatella Colenso 1888] A61
    |    |    |--F. b. var. bidwillii A61
    |    |    `--F. b. var. densifolia Mild. 1908 A61
    |    |--F. mackayi Allan 1935 A61
    |    |--F. sedifolia Forster 1780 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--F. tenella Hooker 1853 A61
    `--Stylidium Swartz 1805 [incl. Candollea Labillardi√®re 1805] BR65
         |  i. s.: S. adenophorum LK14
         |         S. adnatum GK00
         |         S. affine RL05
         |         S. amoenum LK00
         |         S. arenicola W05
         |         S. assimile GK00
         |         S. breviscapum G04b
         |         S. brunonianum GK00
         |           |--S. b. ssp. brunonianum GK00
         |           `--S. b. ssp. minor GK00
         |         S. caespitosum GK00
         |         S. calcaratum BR65
         |         S. caricifolium OS04
         |         S. carnosum OS04
         |         S. ceratophorum LK14
         |         S. choreanthum W05
         |         S. ciliatum [=S. piliferum var. ciliatum] BR65
         |         S. claytonioides LK14
         |         S. cordifolium LK14
         |         S. corymbosum GK00
         |         S. costulatum LK14
         |         S. crassifolium GK00
         |         S. diceratum LK14
         |         S. dichotomum OS04
         |         S. dielsianum W05
         |         S. dunlopianum LK14
         |         S. ecorne GK00
         |         S. emarginatum GK00
         |         S. eriopodum OS04
         |         S. fimbriatum LK14
         |         S. fissilobum LK14
         |         S. floodii LK14
         |         S. floribundum LK14
         |         S. fluminense LK14
         |         S. glabrifolium LK00
         |         S. graminifolium Swartz 1807 K03, BR65
         |         S. guttatum GK00
         |         S. hirsutum OS04
         |         S. hispidum GK00
         |         S. inaequipetalum Black 1938 BR65
         |         S. induratum G04a
         |         S. junceum GK00
         |           |--S. j. ssp. junceum GK00
         |           `--S. j. ssp. brevius GK00
         |         S. laricifolium C08
         |         S. lepidum GK00
         |         S. leptocalyx LK00
         |         S. leptophyllum OS04
         |         S. leptorrhizum LK14
         |         S. limbatum W05
         |         ‘Candollea’ linearis M87
         |         S. longicornu LK14
         |         S. luteum OS04
         |           |--S. l. ssp. luteum OS04
         |           `--S. l. ssp. clavatum OS04
         |         S. majus (Smith) Druce 1917 [=Ventenatia majus Smith 1805] BR65
         |         S. mimeticum GK00
         |         S. miniatum GK00
         |         S. mucronatum LK14
         |         S. multiscapum LK14
         |         S. muscicola LK14
         |         S. pachyrrhizum LK14
         |         S. paulineae LK00
         |         S. periscelianthum GK00
         |         S. perizostera LK14
         |         S. perpusillum BR65
         |         S. petiolare OS04
         |         S. piliferum OS04
         |         S. productum M99
         |         S. prophyllum LK14
         |         S. pubigerum OS04
         |         S. pulchellum GK00
         |         S. pulviniforme W05
         |         S. repens OS04
         |         S. rhipidium GK00
         |         S. rhynchocarpum OS04
         |         S. rivulosum LK14
         |         S. roseonanum GK00
         |         S. rotundifolium LK14
         |         S. rubriscapum LK14
         |         S. scandens GK00
         |         S. schizanthum LK14
         |         S. schoenoides GK00
         |         S. sejunctum G04b
         |         S. semipartitum LK14
         |         S. spathulatum GK00
         |         S. spinulosum GK00
         |         S. squamellosum OS04
         |         S. tepperianum [=Candollea tepperiana] BR65
         |         S. turbinatum LK14
         |         S. uniflorum OS04
         |         S. violaceum GK00
         |         S. yilgarnense G04a
         |--S. subg. Nitrangium W05
         |    |--S. turleyae Lowrie & Kenneally 2004 W05
         |    `--S. validum Wege 2005 W05
         `--S. subg. Tolypangium LK00

Forstera sedifolia Forster 1780 A61 [=Phyllachne sedifolia C06; incl. F. sedifolia var. oculata Cheeseman 1906 A61]

Oreostylidium subulatum (Hooker) Bergg. 1878 A61, ME70 [=Stylidium subulatum Hooker 1864 A61, Phyllachne (Forstera) subulata Muell. 1878 C06; incl. O. affine Colenso 1888 A61]

Phyllachne clavigera (Hooker) Muell. 1873 A61 [=Forstera clavigera Hooker 1844 A61, Helophyllum clavigerum C06; incl. F. aretiastrifolia Homb. & Jacq. ex Decne 1853 A61]

Phyllachne colensoi (Hooker) Bergg. 1877 A61 [=Helophyllum colensoi Hooker 1864 A61; incl. P. haastii Bergg. 1880 A61, P. colensoi var. haastii C06, H. muscoides Colenso 1894 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: New southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311–319.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[K03] K√•rehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LK00] Lowrie, A. & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293–302.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[W05] Wege, J. A. 2005. Stylidium validum (Stylidiaceae): a new trigger plant from southern Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 13–16.

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