Stylidium turleyae, copyright William Archer.

Belongs within: Asterales.
Contains: Stylidium subgenus Tolypangium.

The Stylidiaceae are a Gondwanan group of mostly herbaceous plants in which flowers have the stamens and style fused in a central column. In members of the genus Stylidium, trigger-plants, the column is long and usually exserted, and curved so that when the corolla lobes are touched the column moves between the labellum and posterior lobes so as to deposit and collect pollen on pollinators (Black & Robertson 1965)

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Mostly herbs, with simple alternate or rosulate leaves usually without stipules. Flowers irregular, bisexual; sepals 5, persistent, inserted at summit of hollow adnate receptacle; corolla deeply five-lobed, tube short, lower or anterior lobe (labellum) smaller than others and different in shape; stamens 2, lateral, filaments connate with style in a column or gynostemium; anthers sessile at summit of column, two-celled, opening outwards, often concealing entire or two-lobed stigma; ovary inferior, more or less two-celled or almost one-celled, with numerous or few anatropous ovules; fruit a capsule opening from summit in two valves; seeds small, embryo minute, enclosed in fleshy albumen.

<==Stylidiaceae [Stylidieae]
    |--Oreostylidium Bergg. 1878 A61, ME70
    |    `--O. subulatum (Hooker) Bergg. 1878 A61, ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Phyllachne Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |    |--P. clavigera (Hooker) Muell. 1873 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. colensoi (Hooker) Bergg. 1877 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. rubra (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 [=Helophyllum rubrum Hooker 1864] A61
    |    `--P. uliginosa CL85
    |--Levenhookia BR65
    |    |--L. dubia BR65
    |    |--L. leptantha LK00
    |    |--L. pusilla BR65
    |    `--L. stipitata OS04
    |--Forstera Linn. f. 1780 A61
    |    |--F. bidwillii Hooker 1853 [incl. F. major Colenso 1899, F. truncatella Colenso 1888] A61
    |    |    |--F. b. var. bidwillii A61
    |    |    `--F. b. var. densifolia Mild. 1908 A61
    |    |--F. mackayi Allan 1935 A61
    |    |--F. sedifolia Forster 1780 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--F. tenella Hooker 1853 A61
    `--Stylidium Swartz 1805 [incl. Candollea Labillardi√®re 1805] BR65
         |  i. s.: S. adenophorum LK14
         |         S. adnatum GK00
         |         S. affine RL05
         |         S. amoenum LK00
         |         S. arenicola W05
         |         S. assimile GK00
         |         S. breviscapum G04b
         |         S. brunonianum GK00
         |           |--S. b. ssp. brunonianum GK00
         |           `--S. b. ssp. minor GK00
         |         S. caespitosum GK00
         |         S. calcaratum BR65
         |         S. caricifolium OS04
         |         S. carnosum OS04
         |         S. ceratophorum LK14
         |         S. choreanthum W05
         |         S. ciliatum [=S. piliferum var. ciliatum] BR65
         |         S. claytonioides LK14
         |         S. cordifolium LK14
         |         S. corymbosum GK00
         |         S. costulatum LK14
         |         S. crassifolium GK00
         |         S. diceratum LK14
         |         S. dichotomum OS04
         |         S. dielsianum W05
         |         S. dunlopianum LK14
         |         S. ecorne GK00
         |         S. emarginatum GK00
         |         S. eriopodum OS04
         |         S. fimbriatum LK14
         |         S. fissilobum LK14
         |         S. floodii LK14
         |         S. floribundum LK14
         |         S. fluminense LK14
         |         S. glabrifolium LK00
         |         S. graminifolium Swartz 1807 K03, BR65
         |         S. guttatum GK00
         |         S. hirsutum OS04
         |         S. hispidum GK00
         |         S. inaequipetalum Black 1938 BR65
         |         S. induratum G04a
         |         S. junceum GK00
         |           |--S. j. ssp. junceum GK00
         |           `--S. j. ssp. brevius GK00
         |         S. laricifolium C08
         |         S. lepidum GK00
         |         S. leptocalyx LK00
         |         S. leptophyllum OS04
         |         S. leptorrhizum LK14
         |         S. limbatum W05
         |         ‘Candollea’ linearis M87
         |         S. longicornu LK14
         |         S. luteum OS04
         |           |--S. l. ssp. luteum OS04
         |           `--S. l. ssp. clavatum OS04
         |         S. majus (Smith) Druce 1917 [=Ventenatia majus Smith 1805] BR65
         |         S. mimeticum GK00
         |         S. miniatum GK00
         |         S. mucronatum LK14
         |         S. multiscapum LK14
         |         S. muscicola LK14
         |         S. pachyrrhizum LK14
         |         S. paulineae LK00
         |         S. periscelianthum GK00
         |         S. perizostera LK14
         |         S. perpusillum BR65
         |         S. petiolare OS04
         |         S. piliferum OS04
         |         S. productum M99
         |         S. prophyllum LK14
         |         S. pubigerum OS04
         |         S. pulchellum GK00
         |         S. pulviniforme W05
         |         S. repens OS04
         |         S. rhipidium GK00
         |         S. rhynchocarpum OS04
         |         S. rivulosum LK14
         |         S. roseonanum GK00
         |         S. rotundifolium LK14
         |         S. rubriscapum LK14
         |         S. scandens GK00
         |         S. schizanthum LK14
         |         S. schoenoides GK00
         |         S. sejunctum G04b
         |         S. semipartitum LK14
         |         S. spathulatum GK00
         |         S. spinulosum GK00
         |         S. squamellosum OS04
         |         S. tepperianum [=Candollea tepperiana] BR65
         |         S. turbinatum LK14
         |         S. uniflorum OS04
         |         S. violaceum GK00
         |         S. yilgarnense G04a
         |--S. subg. Nitrangium W05
         |    |--S. turleyae Lowrie & Kenneally 2004 W05
         |    `--S. validum Wege 2005 W05
         `--S. subg. Tolypangium LK00

Forstera sedifolia Forster 1780 A61 [=Phyllachne sedifolia C06; incl. F. sedifolia var. oculata Cheeseman 1906 A61]

Oreostylidium subulatum (Hooker) Bergg. 1878 A61, ME70 [=Stylidium subulatum Hooker 1864 A61, Phyllachne (Forstera) subulata Muell. 1878 C06; incl. O. affine Colenso 1888 A61]

Phyllachne clavigera (Hooker) Muell. 1873 A61 [=Forstera clavigera Hooker 1844 A61, Helophyllum clavigerum C06; incl. F. aretiastrifolia Homb. & Jacq. ex Decne 1853 A61]

Phyllachne colensoi (Hooker) Bergg. 1877 A61 [=Helophyllum colensoi Hooker 1864 A61; incl. P. haastii Bergg. 1880 A61, P. colensoi var. haastii C06, H. muscoides Colenso 1894 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: New southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311–319.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[K03] K√•rehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LK00] Lowrie, A. & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293–302.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[W05] Wege, J. A. 2005. Stylidium validum (Stylidiaceae): a new trigger plant from southern Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 13–16.

Last updated: 28 March 2020.

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