Sacred scarab beetles Scarabaeus sacer, copyright Hectonichus.

Belongs within: Scarabaeinae.

The Scarabaeini are an Old World group of dung beetles with a profemoral setal brush composed of separate clumps of long and short setae. Members of the Scarabaeini are rollers, collecting dung by forming it into a ball and pushing it backwards with the hind legs (Philips et al. 2004).

Synapomorphies (from Philips et al. 2004): Labial paraglossa strut distinctly bifurcate at proximal apex; declivous region of mentum broad and short; cervical sclerite with setal brush concentrated along apical and lateral margin; cervical sclerite apodeme obliquely oriented to lateral edge; profemoral setal brush composed of both long and short setae in separate clumps; midcoxae strongly oblique.

<==Scarabaeini PPS04
    |--Kheper subaeneus PPS04
    |--Sceliages PPS04
    |--Mnematium PPS04
    |--Coproecus Reiche 1841 CW92
    |    `--*C. hemisphericus (Guérin-Méneville 1830) [=Circellium hemisphaericum] CW92
    |--Pachylomera PPS04
    |    |--P. femoralis (Kirby 1828) B14
    |    `--P. opaca B14
    |--Boletoscapter Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--*B. cornutus (Matthews 1974) [=Cephalodesmius cornutus] CW92
    |    `--B. furcatus Matthews 1974 CW92
    |--Mentophilus Castelnau 1840 [incl. Aulacium Reiche 1841] CW92
    |    |--*M. hollandiae Castelnau 1840 CW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--M. subsulcatus Sharp 1873 CW92
    |--Pseudignambia Paulian & Pluot-Sigwalt 1984 CW92
    |    |--*P. mimerops (Matthews 1974) [=Ignambia mimerops] CW92
    |    `--P. squamata (Matthews 1974) [=Ignambia squamata] CW92
    |--Aptenocanthon Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--*A. hopsoni (Carter 1936) [=Panelus hopsoni] CW92
    |    |--A. monteithi Storey 1984 CW92
    |    `--A. rossi Matthews 1974 CW92
    |--Aulacopris White 1859 CW92
    |    |--*A. reichei White 1859 CW92
    |    |--A. matthewsi Storey 1986 CW92
    |    `--A. maximus Matthews 1974 CW92
    |--Canthonosoma Macleay 1871 [incl. Homodesmius Sharp 1873] CW92
    |    |--*C. mastersii Macleay 1871 [incl. Homodesmius planus Sharp 1873] CW92
    |    |--C. castelnaui (Harold 1868) [=Cephalodesmius castelnaui] CW92
    |    `--C. macleayi (Harold 1868) (see below for synonymy) CW92
    |--Labroma Sharp 1873 CW92
    |    |--*L. horrens Sharp 1873 CW92
    |    |--L. tuberculata (Waterhouse 1874) [=Menthophilus tuberculatus] CW92
    |    `--L. umbratilis Matthews 1974 CW92
    |--Sauvagesinella Paulian 1934 CW92
    |    |--*S. monstrosa Paulian 1934 CW92
    |    |--S. becki (Paulian 1934) [=Tesserodon becki] CW92
    |    `--S. palustris Matthews 1934 CW92
    |--Monoplistes Lansberge 1874 CW92
    |    |--*M. haroldi Lansberge 1874 CW92
    |    |--M. curvipes Lea 1923 CW92
    |    |--M. leai Paulian 1934 CW92
    |    |--M. occidentalis (Macleay 1888) [=Temnoplectron occidentale; incl. T. lucidum Macleay 1888] CW92
    |    |--M. phanophilus Lea 1923 CW92
    |    `--M. tropicus Lea 1923 CW92
    |--Diorygopyx Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--*D. tibialis (Macleay 1871) [=Temnoplectron tibiale] CW92
    |    |--D. asciculifer Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--D. cuspidatus Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--D. duplodentatus Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--D. incomptus Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--D. incrassatus Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--D. niger Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    `--D. simpliciclunis Matthews 1974 CW92
    |--Temnoplectron Westwood 1842 CW92
    |    |--*T. rotundum Westwood 1842 CW92
    |    |--T. aeneopiceum Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--T. bornemisszai Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--T. disruptum Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--T. diversicolle Blackburn 1894 CW92
    |    |--T. involucre Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--T. laeve (Castelnau 1840) [=Hyboma laeve] CW92
    |    |--T. laevigatum Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--T. politulum Macleay 1887 [incl. T. reyi Paulian 1934] CW92
    |    `--T. subvolitans Matthews 1974 CW92
    |--Tesserodon Hope 1837 CW92
    |    |--*T. novaehollandiae (Fabricius 1775) CW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--T. angulatum Westwood 1842 [=T. angulatus] CW92
    |    |--T. erratum Sotrey 1991 CW92
    |    |--T. feehani Storey 1991 CW92
    |    |--T. gestroi Lansberge 1855 CW92
    |    |--T. granulatum Matthews 1994 CW92
    |    |--T. henryi Storey 1991 CW92
    |    |--T. hilleri Storey 1991 CW92
    |    |--T. intricatum Lea 1923 [=T. intricatus] CW92
    |    |--T. pilicrepus Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    |--T. simplicipunctatum Storey 1991 CW92
    |    |--T. tenebroides Matthews 1974 CW92
    |    `--T. variolosum Macleay 1888 CW92
    `--Scarabaeus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. actaeon Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. aloeus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. aquaticus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. atlas Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. auratus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. brunnus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. calcaratus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. capensis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. caraboides Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. carinatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. carnifex Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. ceratoniae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. cervus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. chrysis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. conspurcatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. cylindricus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. didymus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. erraticus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. fasciatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. festivus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. flavicornis PPS04
         |--S. fossor Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. fullo Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. gigas Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. haemorrhoidalis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. hemipterus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. hercules Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. horticola Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. indus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. interruptus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. lanigerus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. lanius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. laticollis KR91
         |--S. lineola Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. longimanus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. maurus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. melolontha Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. mimas Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. molossus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. nitidus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. nobilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. nuchicornis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. parallelipipedus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. pilularius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. punctatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. rufipes Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. sacer Linnaeus 1758 B14
         |--S. scaber Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. semipunctatus KR91
         |--S. sepicola Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. simson Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. solstitialis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. subterraneus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. sylvanus B35
         |--S. syriacus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. tridentatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. truncatus B35
         |--S. typhoeus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--S. typhon KR91
         `--S. variabilis Linnaeus 1758 L58

Canthonosoma macleayi (Harold 1868) [=Cephalodesmius macleayi, *Homodesmius macleayi; incl. H. haroldi Sharp 1873] CW92

*Mentophilus hollandiae Castelnau 1840 CW92 [incl. *Aulacium carinatum Reiche 1841 CW92, Menthophilus carinatus M86, M. hollandiae M86]

*Tesserodon novaehollandiae (Fabricius 1775) CW92 [=Scarabaeus novaehollandiae CW92, T. hollandiae M86; incl. T. piceum Hope 1842 CW92]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Scarabaeinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 106–173. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[KR91] Krantz, G. W., L. A. Royce, R. R. Lowry & R. Kelsey. 1991. Mechanisms of phoretic specificity in Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 561–569. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[PPS04] Philips, T. K., E. Pretorius & C. H. Scholtz. 2004. A phylogenetic analysis of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae: Scarabaeidae): unrolling an evolutionary history. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 53–88.

Last updated: 1 May 2021.

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