Tyrannosauroidea

Skeletal mount of Tyrannosaurus rex, copyright Scott Robert Anselmo.


Belongs within: Coelurosauria.

The Tyrannosauroidea are a clade of theropod dinosaurs known from the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous of Asia and North America including some of the largest of all carnivorous dinosaurs, as well as a number of smaller basal forms.

<==Tyrannosauroidea XN04
    |--Kileskus XW12
    |--Dilong Xu, Norell et al. 2004 XN04
    |    `--*D. paradoxus Xu, Norell et al. 2004 XN04
    |--Stokesosaurus Madsen 1974 XW12, H04
    |    |--S. clevelandi Madsen 1974 H04
    |    `--S. langhami XC09
    |--+--Sinotyrannus XW12
    |  `--+--Guanlong wucaii XW12
    |     `--Proceratosaurus Huene 1926 XW12, HMC04
    |          `--P. bradleyi (Woodward 1910) [=Megalosaurus bradleyi] HMC04
    `--+--Yutyrannus Xu, Wang et al. 2012 XW12
       |    `--*Y. huali Xu, Wang et al. 2012 XW12
       `--+--Eotyrannus Hutt, Naish et al. 2001 H04
          |    `--E. lengi Hutt, Naish et al. 2001 H04
          `--+--Xiongguanglong baimoensis XW12
             `--+--Dryptosaurus Marsh 1877 XW12, H04
                |    `--D. aquilunguis (Cope 1866) [=Laelaps aquilunguis] H04
                `--+--Raptorex kriegsteini XW12
                   `--+--Appalachiosaurus Carr, Williamson & Schwimmer 2005 XW12, D07
                      |    `--A. montgomeriensis D07
                      `--+--Bistahieversor XW12
                         `--Tyrannosauridae [Deinodontidae, Dinodontidae] XN04
                              |  i. s.: Aublysodon Leidy 1868 [Aublysodontinae] P88
                              |           |--A. amplus Marsh 1892 (n. d.) H04
                              |           |--A. cristatus Marsh 1892 (n. d.) H04
                              |           |--A. lateralis Cope 1876 (n. d.) H04
                              |           `--A. mirandus Leidy 1868 (n. d.) H04
                              |         Labocania Molnar 1974 N85, H04
                              |           `--L. anomala Molnar 1974 H04
                              |         Prodeinodon N85
                              |           |--P. kwangshiensis Hou, Yeh & Zhao 1975 (n. d.) HMC04
                              |           `--P. mongoliensis Osborn 1924 (n. d.) HMC04
                              |         Alectrosaurus Gilmore 1933 H04
                              |           `--A. olseni Gilmore 1933 H04 [=Albertosaurus (Alectrosaurus) olseni P88]
                              |--Albertosaurinae H04
                              |    |--Albertosaurus Osborn 1905 H04
                              |    |    `--*A. sarcophagus Osborn 1905 N85 [incl. A. arctunguis Parks 1928 H04]
                              |    `--Gorgosaurus Lambe 1914 [incl. Deinodon Leidy 1856] H04
                              |         `--G. libratus Lambe 1914 H04 (see below for synonymy)
                              `--Tyrannosaurinae H04
                                   |--Alioramus Kurzanov 1976 XW12, H04
                                   |    `--A. remotus Kurzanov 1976 H04
                                   `--+--Teratophoneus XW12
                                      `--+--Daspletosaurus Russell 1970 H04
                                         |    `--D. torosus Russell 1970 H04 (see below for synonymy)
                                         `--+--Tarbosaurus Maleev 1955 (see below for synonymy) H04
                                            |    `--T. bataar (Maleev 1955) H04 (see below for synonymy)
                                            `--+--Nanotyrannus Bakker, Williams & Currie 1988 XN04, H04
                                               |    `--N. lancensis (Gilmore 1946) H04 (see below for synonymy)
                                               `--Tyrannosaurus Osborn 1905 (see below for synonymy) H04
                                                    |--T. lanpingensis Yeh 1975 (n. d.) H04
                                                    `--T. rex Osborn 1905 H04 (see below for synonymy)

Tyrannosauroidea incertae sedis:
  Mirischia asymmetrica N10
  Bagaraatan Osmólska 1996 H04
    `--B. ostromi Osmólska 1996 H04
  ‘Ornithomimus’ grandis Marsh 1890 H04
  ‘Chilantaisaurus’ maortuensis Hu 1964 H04
  Santanaraptor Kellner 1999 H04
    `--S. placidus Kellner 1999 H04
  Laelaps macropus Cope 1868 (n. d.) H04
  Diplotomodon Leidy 1868 (n. d.) H04
    `--*D. horrificus (Leidy 1868) (n. d.) [=Tomodon horrificus] H04
  Itemirus Kurzanov 1976 [Itemiridae] H04
    `--I. medullaris Kurzanov 1976 H04
  Iliosuchus Huene 1932 D07, HMC04 [Iliosuchidae]
    `--I. incognitus Huene 1932 HMC04

Daspletosaurus torosus Russell 1970 H04 [=Tyrannosaurus (Daspletosaurus) torosus P88]

Gorgosaurus libratus Lambe 1914 H04 [=Albertosaurus libratus N85; incl. Laelaps falculus Cope 1876 H04, Dromaeosaurus falculus O69, L. hazenianus Cope 1876 H04, Deinodon horridus Leidy 1856 (n. d.) H04, L. incrassatus Cope 1876 H04, Dryptosaurus incrassatus P88, D. kenabekides Hay 1899 H04, Gorgosaurus sternbergi Matthew & Brown 1923 H04, Albertosaurus sternbergi P88]

Nanotyrannus lancensis (Gilmore 1946) H04 [=Gorgosaurus lancensis H04, Albertosaurus (Nanotyrannus) lancensis P88]

Tarbosaurus Maleev 1955 [incl. Chingkankosaurus Young 1958, Maleevosaurus Carpenter 1992, Shanshanosaurus Dong 1977] H04

Tarbosaurus bataar (Maleev 1955) H04 [=Tyrannosaurus bataar H04; incl. Ta. efremovi Maleev 1955 H04, Chingkankousaurus fragilis Young 1958 H04, Shanshanosaurus huoyanshanensis Dong 1977 H04, Aublysodon huoyanshanensis P88, Gorgosaurus lancinator Maleev 1955 H04, Tyrannnosaurus luanchuanensis Dong 1979 H04, G. novojilovi Maleev 1955 H04, Albertosaurus novojilovi H04, Aublysodon novojilovi H04, Deinodon novojilovi H04, Maleevosaurus novojilovi H04, Albertosaurus periculosus Riabinin 1930 H04, Tyrannosaurus turpanensis Zhai, Zheng & Tong 1978 H04]

Tyrannosaurus Osborn 1905 [incl. Dynamosaurus Osborn 1905, Manospondylus Cope 1892] H04

Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn 1905 H04 [incl. Manospondylus gigas Cope 1892 H04, Dynamosaurus imperiosus Osborn 1905 H04, Albertosaurus megagracilis Paul 1988 H04, Aublysodon molnaris Paul 1988 H04, P88]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[H04] Holtz, T. R. 2004. Tyrannosauroidea. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 111–136. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[HMC04] Holtz, T. R., Jr, R. E. Molnar & P. J. Currie. 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 71–110. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[O69] Ostrom, J. H. 1969. Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 30: 1–165.

[P88] Paul, G. S. 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World: A Complete Illustrated Guide. Simon & Schuster: New York.

[XC09] Xu, X., J. M. Clark, J. Mo, J. Choiniere, C. A. Forster, G. M. Erickson, D. W. E. Hone, C. Sullivan, D. A. Eberth, S. Nesbitt, Q. Zhao, R. Hernandez, C.-K. Jia, F.-L. Han & Y. Guo. 2009. A Jurassic ceratosaur from China helps clarify avian digital homologies. Nature 459: 940–944.

[XN04] Xu, X., M. A. Norell, X. Kuang, X. Wang, Q. Zhao & C. Jia. 2004. Basal tyrannosauroids from China and evidence for protofeathers in tyrannosauroids. Nature 431: 680–684.

[XW12] Xu, X., K. Wang, K. Zhang, Q. Ma, L. Xing, C. Sullivan, D. Hu, S. Cheng & S. Wang. 2012. A gigantic feathered dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of China. Nature 484: 92–95.

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