Ornithurae

Reconstruction of Enaliornis barretti, copyright Nobu Tamura.


Belongs within: Ornithothoraces.
Contains: Aves.

The Ornithurae are a clade of birds including all modern species together with related fossil forms possessing a very short pygostyle and completely fused tarsometatarsus (Zhou & Zhang 2005).

Synapomorphies (from Zhou & Zhang 2005): Pygostyle very short; coracoid strut-like with well-developed procoracoid process; furcula U-shaped; sternum elongate; major digit with first phalanx significantly laterally expanded, tightly abutted by reduced minor digit; tarsometatarsus completely fused.

<==Ornithurae [Ichthyornithiformes, Odontoholomorphae, Odontornithes, Odontotormae, Plataleae] C04
    |--Hongshanornis Zhou & Zhang 2005 ZZ05
    |    `--*H. longicresta Zhou & Zhang 2005 ZZ05
    `--+--+--Liaoningornis Hou 1997 ZZ05, P04
       |  |    `--L. longidigitus Hou 1997 P04
       |  `--+--Yanornis Zhou & Zhang 2001 ZZ05, D07
       |     |    |--Y. chaoyangensis ZZ05
       |     |    `--Y. martini ZBH03
       |     `--Yixianornis grabaui ZZ05
       `--+--Apsaravis Norell & Clarke 2001 ZZ05, NC01 [Apsaravidae, Apsaraviformes]
          |    `--*A. ukhaana Norell & Clarke 2001 NC01
          `--+--+--Ambiortus Kurochkin 1982 P04
             |  |    `--A. dementjevi Kurochkin 1982 [incl. Holbotia ponomarenkoi Kurochkin 1982] P04
             |  `--Carinatae P04
             |       |--Ichthyornis Marsh 1872 C04 (see below for synonymy)
             |       |    `--I. anceps (Marsh 1872) (see below for synonymy) C04
             |       `--+--Aves C04
             |          |--Apatornis Marsh 1873 [Apatornithidae] C04
             |          |    `--*A. celer Marsh 1873 C04 [=Ichthyornis celer P04]
             |          |--Iaceornis Clarke 2004 C04
             |          |    `--*I. marshi Clarke 2004 C04
             |          `--Guildavis Clarke 2004 C04
             |               `--*G. tener (Marsh 1880) [=Ichthyornis tener] C04
             `--Hesperornithes [Hesperornithiformes, Odontoholcae, Odontolcae] C04
                  |  i. s.: Asiahesperornis Nessov & Prizemlin 1991 P04
                  |           `--A. bazhanovi Nessov & Prizemlin 1991 P04
                  |         Judinornis Nessov & Borkin 1983 P04
                  |           `--J. nogontsavensis Nessov & Borkin 1983 P04
                  |         Pasquiaornis Tokaryk, Cumbaa & Storer 1997 P04
                  |           |--P. hardiei Tokaryk, Cumbaa & Storer 1998 P04
                  |           `--P. tankei Tokaryk, Cumbaa & Storer 1997 P04
                  |         Potamornis Elżanowski, Paul & Stidham 1999 P04
                  |           `--P. skutchi Elżanowski, Paul & Stidham 1999 P04
                  |--Enaliornis Seeley 1876 P04 (see below for synonymy)
                  |    |--E. barretti Seeley 1876 [=Palaeocolymbus barretti] P04
                  |    |--E. sedgwicki (Seeley 1876) [=Pelagornis sedgwicki] P04
                  |    `--E. seeleyi D07
                  `--+--Baptornithidae FP64
                     |    |--Neogaeornis wetzeli FP64
                     |    `--Baptornis Marsh 1877 P04
                     |         `--B. advenus Marsh 1877 C04
                     `--Hesperornithidae C04
                          |--Coniornis Marsh 1893 FP64, P04
                          |    `--C. altus Marsh 1893 [incl. Hesperornis montanus Shufeldt 1915] P04
                          |--Lestornis Marsh 1876 C04, P04
                          |    `--L. crassipes Marsh 1876 C04 [=Hesperornis crassipes P04]
                          |--Parahesperornis Martin 1983 C04, P04
                          |    `--P. alexi Martin 1983 P04
                          `--Hesperornis Marsh 1872 [incl. Hargeria Lucas 1903] P04
                               |--H. gracilis Marsh 1876 C04 [=Hargeria gracilis P04]
                               `--H. regalis Marsh 1872 P04

Ornithurae incertae sedis:
  Chaoyangia Hou & Zhang 1993 P04
    `--C. beishanensis Hou & Zhang 1993 P04
  Gansus Hou & Liu 1984 P04
    `--G. yumenensis Hou & Liu 1984 P04
  Gargantuavis Buffetaut & Le Loeuff 1998 P04
    `--G. philoinos Buffetaut & Le Loeuff 1998 P04
  Horezmavis Nessov & Borkin 1983 P04
    `--H. eocretacea Nessov & Borkin 1983 P04
  Limenavis Clarke & Chiappe 2001 P04
    `--L. patagonica Clarke & Chiappe 2001 P04
  Qinornis paleocenica M07
  Cimolopteryx retusus C04

Enaliornis Seeley 1876 P04 [incl. Palaeocolymbus Seeley 1876 P04, Pelagornis Seeley 1876 non Lartet 1857 P04; Enaliornithidae FP64]

Ichthyornis Marsh 1872 C04 [incl. Angelinornis Kashin 1972 P04, Colonosaurus Marsh 1872 P04; Ichthyornidae, Ichthyornithes, Ichthyornithidae]

Ichthyornis anceps (Marsh 1872) [=Graculavus anceps; incl. G. agilis Marsh 1873, Ichthyornis agilis, Plegadornis antecessor Wetmore 1962, Angelinornis antecessor, Ichthyornis antecessor, *I. dispar Marsh 1872, Colonosaurus mudgei Marsh 1872, I. validus Marsh 1880, I. victor Marsh 1876] C04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1–179.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[M07] Mayr, G. 2007. The birds from the Paleocene fissure filling of Walbeck (Germany). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (2): 394–408.

[NC01] Norell, M. A., & J. A. Clarke. 2001. Fossil that fills a critical gap in avian evolution. Nature 409: 181–184.

[P04] Padian, K. 2004. Basal Avialae. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 210–231. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[ZBH03] Zhou, Z., P. M. Barrett & J. Hilton. 2003. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 421: 807–814.

[ZZ05] Zhou, Z., & F. Zhang. 2005. Discovery of an ornithurine bird and its implications for Early Cretaceous avian radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102: 18998–19002.

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