Ankylosauria

Reconstruction of Edmontonia rugosidens by E. M. Fulda.


Belongs within: Genasauria.
Contains: Ankylosaurinae.

The Ankylosauria is a clade of more or less heavily armoured, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that has been defined as including all taxa closer to Ankylosaurus than Stegosaurus.

Synapomorphies (from Vickaryous et al. 2004): Skull with cranial ornamentation present across rostral region and lateral surface of angular; antorbital, supratemporal and external mandibular fenestrae absent; maxillary tooth row inset from lateral edge of maxilla; multiple parasagittal rows of osteoderms present across dorsal surface of neck and postcervical region of body; acetabulum imperforate; synsacrum composed of co-ossified dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae.

<==Ankylosauria
    |--Polacanthidae D07
    |    |--Mymoorapelta Kirkland & Carpenter 1994 D07
    |    |    `--M. maysi Kirkland & Carpenter 1994 VMW04
    |    `--Polacanthus Huxley 1867 VMW04
    |         |--P. foxii Hulke 1881 [=Hylaeosaurus foxii; incl. P. becklesi Hennig 1924] VMW04
    |         `--P. rudgwickensis Blows 1996 VMW04
    |--Ankylosauridae VMW04
    |    |  i. s.: Gastonia Kirklan 1998 VMW04
    |    |           `--G. burgei Kirkland 1998 VMW04
    |    |         Tianchisaurus Dong 1993 D07
    |    |           `--T. nedegoaperferima Dong 1993 (n. d.) VMW04
    |    |         Aletopelta Ford & Kirkland 2001 D07
    |    |           `--A. coombsi Ford & Kirkland 2001 (n. d.) VMW04
    |    |         Crichtonsaurus Dong 2002 D07
    |    |           `--C. bohlini Dong 2002 VMW04
    |    |         Shanxia Barrett, You et al. 1998 D07
    |    |           `--S. tianzhensis Barrett, You et al. 1998 (n. d.) VMW04
    |    |         Maleevus Tumanova 1987 (n. d.) D07, VMW04
    |    |           `--*M. disparoserratus (Maleev 1952) [=Syrmosaurus disparoserratus] VMW04
    |    |--Gargoyleosaurus Carpenter, Miles & Cloward 1998 VMW04
    |    |    `--G. parkpinorum Carpenter, Miles & Cloward 1998 VMW04
    |    `--+--Minmi Molnar 1980 VMW04
    |       |    `--M. paravertebra Molnar 1980 VMW04
    |       `--+--Ankylosaurinae VMW04
    |          `--+--Gobisaurus Vickaryous, Russell et al. 2001 VMW04
    |             |    `--G. domoculus Vickaryous, Russell et al. 2001 VMW04
    |             `--Shamosaurus Tumanova 1983 VMW04
    |                  `--S. scutatus Tumanova 1983 VMW04
    `--Nodosauridae VMW04
         |  i. s.: Struthiosaurus Bunzel 1871 VMW04 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--S. austriacus Bunzel 1871 (see below for synonymy) VMW04
         |           |--S. languedocensis Garcia & Pereda-Suberbiola 2003 VMW04
         |           |--S. lugdunensis D07
         |           `--S. transylvanicus Nopcsa 1915 VMW04
         |         Rhodanosaurus lugdunensis Nopcsa 1929 (n. d.) N85, VMW04
         |         Dracopelta Galton 1980 N85
         |           `--D. zbyszewskii Galton 1980 VMW04
         |         Sarcolestes Lydekker 1893 N85, VMW04
         |           `--S. leedsi Lydekker 1893 VMW04
         |         Priodontognathus Seeley 1875 (n. d.) VMW04
         |           `--*P. phillipsii (Seeley 1869) [=Iguanodon phillipsii] VMW04
         |         Cryptodraco Lydekker 1889 (n. d.) N85, VMW04
         |           `--*C. eumerus (Seeley 1869) [=Cryptosaurus eumerus] VMW04
         |         Hoplitosaurus Lucas 1902 N85, VMW04
         |           `--H. marshi (Lucas 1901) [=Stegosaurus marshi, Polacanthus marshi] VMW04
         |         Polacanthoides ponderosus Nopcsa 1929 (n. d.) N85, VMW04
         |         Priconodon crassus Marsh 1888 (n. d.) N85, VMW04
         |         Animantarx Carpenter, Kirkland et al. 1999 VMW04
         |           `--A. ramaljonesi Carpenter, Kirkland et al. 1999 VMW04
         |         Liaoningosaurus Xu, Wang & You 2001 XWY01
         |           `--*L. paradoxus Xu, Wang & You 2001 XWY01
         |         Hylaeosaurus Mantell 1833 XWY01, VMW04 [incl. Vectensia Delair 1982 VMW04]
         |           `--H. armatus Mantell 1833 (see below for synonymy) VMW04
         |         Nodosaurus Marsh 1889 VMW04
         |           `--N. textilis Marsh 1889 VMW04
         |         Acanthopholis Huxley 1867 D07
         |           |--A. eucercus Seeley 1869 (n. d.) VMW04
         |           |--A. horridus Huxley 1867 (n. d.) VMW04
         |           |--A. hughesii D07
         |           |--A. keepingi D07
         |           |--A. macrocercus Seeley 1869 (n. d.) VMW04
         |           |--A. platypus Seeley 1869 (n. d.) VMW04
         |           `--A. stereocercus Seeley 1869 (n. d.) VMW04
         |         Niobrarasaurus Carpenter, Dilkes & Weishampel 1995 D07, VMW04
         |           `--N. coleii (Mehl 1936) [=Hierosaurus coleii, Nodosaurus coleii] VMW04
         |         Anoplosaurus Seeley 1879 D07, VMW04
         |           |--A. curtonotus Seeley 1879 VMW04
         |           |--A. major Seeley 1879 (n. d.) VMW04
         |           `--A. tanyspondulus D07
         |--Cedarpelta Carpenter, Kirkland et al. 2001 VMW04
         |    `--C. bilbeyhallorum Carpenter, Kirkland et al. 2001 VMW04
         `--+--Pawpawsaurus Lee 1996 VMW04
            |    `--P. campbelli Lee 1996 VMW04
            |--Sauropelta Ostrom 1970 N85
            |    `--S. edwardsorum Ostrom 1970 VMW04
            |--Silvisaurus Eaton 1960 VMW04
            |    `--S. condrayi Eaton 1960 VMW04
            `--+--Panoplosaurus Lambe 1919 VMW04
               |    `--P. mirus Lambe 1919 VMW04
               `--Edmontonia Sternberg 1928 [incl. Chassternbergia Bakker 1988, Denversaurus Bakker 1988] VMW04
                    |--E. australis Ford 2000 (n. d.) VMW04
                    |--E. longiceps Sternberg 1928 VMW04 (see below for synonymy)
                    `--E. rugosidens (Gilmore 1930) (see below for synonymy) VMW04

Ankylosauria incertae sedis:
  Sauroplites scutiger Bohlin 1953 (n. d.) VMW04
  Amtosaurus Kurzanov & Tumanova 1978 VMW04
    |--A. archibaldi Averianov 2002 VMW04
    `--A. magnus Kurzanov & Tumanova 1978 VMW04
  Stegosaurides [=Stegosauroides] N85
    `--S. excavatus Bohlin 1953 (n. d.) VMW04
  Stegopeltinae D07
    |--Stegopelta Williston 1905 VMW04
    |    `--S. landerensis Williston 1905 VMW04
    `--Glyptodontopelta Ford 2000 D07
         `--G. mimus Ford 2000 (n. d.) VMW04
  Texasetes Coombs 1995 VMW04
    `--T. pleurohalio Coombs 1995 VMW04
  Brachypodosaurus gravis Chakravarti 1934 (n. d.) VMW04
  Eucercosaurus tanyspondylus Seeley 1879 (n. d.) VMW04
  Hierosaurus sternbergi Wieland 1909 (n. d.) VMW04
  Lametasaurus indicus Matley 1923 (n. d.) VMW04
  Palaeoscincus Leidy 1856 D07
    |--P. asper Lambe 1902 (n. d.) VMW04
    |--P. costatus Leidy 1856 (n. d.) VMW04
    `--P. latus Marsh 1892 (n. d.) VMW04
  Peishansaurus philemys Bohlin 1953 (n. d.) VMW04
  Rhadinosaurus alcinus Seeley 1881 (n. d.) VMW04
  Sygonosaurus macrocercus Seeley 1879 (n. d.) VMW04

Edmontonia longiceps Sternberg 1928 VMW04 [incl. Denversaurus schlessmani Bakker 1988 VMW04, E. schlessmani D07]

Edmontonia rugosidens (Gilmore 1930) [=Palaeoscincus rugosidens, Chassternbergia rugosidens, Panoplosaurus rugosidens] VMW04

Hylaeosaurus armatus Mantell 1833 [incl. Hylosaurus mantelli Fitzinger 1843, Hyla. oweni Mantell 1844] VMW04

Struthiosaurus Bunzel 1871 VMW04 [incl. Cretaeomus Seeley 1881 VMW04, Danubiosaurus Bunzel 1871 VMW04, Danubriosaurus N85, Leipsanosaurus Nopcsa 1918 VMW04, Lepanosaurus N85, Pleuropeltis Seeley 1881 VMW04, Pleuropeltus N85]

Struthiosaurus austriacus Bunzel 1871 [incl. Danubiosaurus anceps Bunzel 1871, Hoplosaurus ischyrus Seeley 1881, Crataeomus lepidophorus Seeley 1881, Leipsanosaurus noricus Nopcsa 1918, C. pawlowitschii Seeley 1881, Pleuropeltis suessi Seeley 1881] VMW04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[VMW04] Vickaryous, M. K., T. Maryańska & D. B. Weishampel. 2004. Ankylosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 363–392. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[XWY01] Xu, X., X.-L. Wang & H.-L. You. 2001. A juvenile ankylosaur from China. Naturwissenschaften 88: 297–300.

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