Goniosoma calcar, copyright Glauco Machado.

Belongs within: Goniosomatinae.

Goniosoma is a genus of goniosomatine harvestmen in which the legs are relatively short, with relatively weak armature on femur IV in the male (DaSilva & Gnaspini 2009).

Characters (from DaSilva & Gnaspini 2009): Eye-mound low and generally with one pair of medium-sized or very large spines (exception: tubercle like a medium-sized granule in G. macracanthum). Coxa IV with one pointed prolateral apical apophysis with 1 small sub-basal posterior process, oblique or nearly longitudinal and slightly curved downward; retrolateral apical apophysis large, of same size or larger than trochanter, or, at least, like a spine. Femur short, curved inward (from with a strong curvature to almost straight) and very granulated; flat granules, mainly on retrolateral row (row2); dorsal rows, on apical region, very granulated and disorganised and/or with a nearly longitudinal comb of granules (very close to each other); dorsal–prolateral apical apophysis large and curved backward. Tarsal process short, medium-sized or long (from minute to larger than tarsal claws); if large in male, female has medium-sized tarsal process. Tarsal claws simple. Penis longer than wider; apical group of setae with four setae on a single longitudinal row (exception: one additional ventral seta, but very small, in G. vatrax); basal group with three setae on longitudinal, L-like or oblique row, and one additional very small, ventral seta; all setae pointed. Glans without or with ventral process; with apical lamina or thin (without lamina); stylus with a dorsal apical ‘beak’.

<==Goniosoma Perty 1833 DG09 (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: G. lepidum Gervais 1844 (n. d.) DG09
    |         G. monacanthum Gervais 1844 (n. d.) DG09
    |         G. obscurum Perty 1833 (n. d.) DG09
    |         G. versicolor Perty 1833 (n. d.) DG09 [=Progoniosoma versicolor K03]
    |--G. carum (Mello-Leitão 1936) [=*Xulapona cara, Lyogoniosoma carum] DG09
    `--+--+--*G. varium Perty 1833 DG09 (see below for synonymy)
       |  `--+--G. capixaba DaSilva & Gnaspini 2009 DG09
       |     `--+--G. roridum Perty 1833 [=Progoniosoma roridum] DG09
       |        `--G. venustum Koch 1839 [incl. G. geniculatum Mello-Leitão 1931] DG09
       `--+--G. vatrax Koch 1848 (see below for synonymy) DG09
          `--+--G. macracanthum (Mello-Leitão 1922) [=Progoniosoma macracanthum, *Lyogoniosoma macracanthum] DG09
             `--+--+--G. dentipes Koch 1839 (see below for synonymy) DG09
                |  `--G. ensifer (Mello-Leitão 1940) DG09 [=Progoniosoma ensifer DG09, Acutisoma ensifer KP-R07]
                `--+--G. apoain DaSilva & Gnaspini 2009 DG09
                   `--+--G. calcar (Roewer 1913) [=Progoniosoma calcar] DG09
                      `--G. unicolor (Mello-Leitão 1932) [=Glyptogoniosoma unicolor, Acutisoma unicolor] DG09

Goniosoma Perty 1833 DG09 [incl. Glyptogoniosoma Mello-Leitão 1932 DG09, Glypotgoniosoma (l. c.) K03, Goniosomella Mello-Leitão 1936 DG09, Lyogoniosoma Mello-Leitão 1926 DG09, Liogonissoma (l. c.) K03, Metalyogoniosoma Soares & Soares 1946 DG09, Progoniosoma Roewer 1913 DG09, Progonissoma (l. c.) K03, Xulapona Mello-Leitão 1936 DG09]

Goniosoma dentipes Koch 1839 [=*Progoniosoma dentipes; incl. P. cruciferum Mello-Leitão 1923, Acutisoma cruciferum, *Glyptogoniosoma cruciferum, Goniosoma grossum Koch 1839, Progoniosoma grossum, Glyptogoniosoma perditum Mello-Leitão 1936, Acutisoma perditum, Progoniosoma tijuca Roewer 1930, Goniosoma tijuca] DG09

*Goniosoma varium Perty 1833 DG09 [=Gonyleptes spinipes Gray in Griffith 1833 non Perty 1833 R23; incl. Acutisomella cryptoleuca Mello-Leitão 1940 DG09, Acutisomella intermedia Mello-Leitão 1937 DG09, Acutisoma intermedium DG09, Goniosoma junceum Perty 1833 DG09, Goni. patruele Perty 1833 DG09, Progoniosoma patruele DG09, *Metalyogoniosoma unum Soares & Soares 1946 DG09, Goniosoma xanthophthalmum Mello-Leitão 1931 DG09, Goni. xanthophathalmum (l. c.) K03, Goni. xatnhophthalmum DG09]

Goniosoma vatrax Koch 1848 [incl. Progoniosoma minense Mello-Leitão 1932, Goniosoma minense, *Goniosomella perlata Mello-Leitão 1936, Lyogoniosoma perlatus (l. c.), L. perlatum] DG09

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DG09] DaSilva, M. B., & P. Gnaspini. 2009. A systematic revision of Goniosomatinae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae), with a cladistic analysis and biogeographical notes. Invertebrate Systematics 23: 530–624.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KP-R07] Kury, A. B., & R. Pinto-da-Rocha. 2007. Gonyleptidae Sundevall, 1833. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 196–203. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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