Left and right valves of Shivaella nicklesi, from Hoare & Merrill (2004).

Belongs within: Palaeocopida.

The Paraparchitidae are a group of mostly robust ostracods known from the Lower Devonian to the Middle Permian. In some specimens (at least of the genus Paraparchites), successive moults may be retained so the carapace appears multi-layered. The genus Paraparchites is subovate to elongate-ovate in shape and smooth except sometimes for a posterodorsal spine, and the left valve usually overlaps the right valve along the free margin (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Nonsulcate, nonlobate, nonvelate, smooth to punctate, some with posterodorsal spine; dorsum straight to gently convex; valves unequal, larger overlapping smaller along free margin, subovate to elongate-ovate, ends broadly rounded; hinge channel straight or interrupted at ends by faint to moderately strong posterior and anterior cardinal indentations where overlap begins; one valve may slightly overreach other dorsally, but dorsal shoulders usually of equal height.

    |--Coelonella Swartz 1936 CB86 [=Coeloenella (l. c.) M61]
    |    `--C. longula (Chen 1958) [=Microcoelonella longula] CB86
    |--Chamishaella Sohn 1971 ZL87
    |    `--C. carbonaria ZL87
    |--Paraparchitella Cooper 1946 BB61
    |    `--*P. ovata Cooper 1946 BB61
    |--Samarella Polenova 1952 BB61
    |    `--*S. crassa Polenova 1952 BB61
    |--Shemonaella Sohn 1971 S82
    |    |--S. dutroi Sohn 1971 S82
    |    `--S. scotoburdigalensis [=Paraparchites scotoburdigalensis] G88
    |--Pseudoparaparchites Kellett 1933 [incl. Microparaparchites Croneis & Gale 1938] BB61
    |    |--*P. kansensis Kellett 1933 BB61
    |    `--P. brazoensis BB61
    |--Proparaparchites Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    |--*P. ovatus Cooper 1941 BB61
    |    |--P. fabulus Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    `--P. parallelus Cooper 1946 HM04
    |--Shivaella Sohn 1971 HM04
    |    |--S. brazoensis (Coryell & Sample 1932) (see below for synonymy) HM04
    |    |--S. cyclopea (Girty 1910) HM04
    |    |--S. macallisteri Sohn 1972 HM04
    |    `--S. nicklesi (Ulrich 1891) [=Leperditia nicklesi] HM04
    `--Paraparchites Ulrich & Bassler 1906 CB86 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*P. humerosus Ulrich & Bassler 1906 BB61
         |--P. inornatus CB86
         |--P. orbiculatus CB86
         |--P. reversus [=*Antiparaparchites reversus] BB61
         `--P. texanus CB86

Paraparchites Ulrich & Bassler 1906 CB86 [incl. Antiparaparchites Coryell & Rogatz 1932 BB61, Ardmorea Bradfield 1935 BB61, Microcoelonella Coryell & Sohn 1938 BB61]

Shivaella brazoensis (Coryell & Sample 1932) [=Paraparchites brazoensis; incl. P. oblongus Coryell & Sample 1932, P. palopintoensis Coryell & Sample 1932] HM04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[CB86] Chen D.-Q. & Bao H. 1986. Lower Permian ostracodes from the Chihsia Formation of Jurong and Longtan, Jiangsu Province. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 3 (2): 107–132.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HM04] Hoare, R. D., & G. K. Merrill. 2004. A Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) ostracode fauna from Texas. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 185–204.

[M61] Moore, R. C. 1961. Supplement—USSR treatise on Ostracoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q422–Q429. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[S82] Shi C.-G. 1982. Some early Carboniferous ostracodes from Nylam, Xizang (Tibet). Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 21 (3): 309–314.

[ZL87] Zhang X.-J. & Liang X.-Y. 1987. Ostracoda from the Taiyuan Formation of Xingyang and Gong Xian districts, Henan. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 4 (3): 293–312.

Last updated: 6 March 2022.

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