Furcatergalia

Holotype fossil nymph of Furvoneta lucida, from Sinitshenkova (2002b).


Belongs within: Ephemeroptera.
Contains: Ephemerelloidea, Leptophlebiidae.

The Furcatergalia are a group of mayflies characterised by bifurcate tergaliae in the nymphs, and a shortened first tarsal segment in the adults (Kluge & Sinitshenkova 2002). Major subgroups of the Furcatergalia include the Pannota, in which nymphs of the penultimate instar have wing pads fused to the mesothorax for less than half of their length.

<==Furcatergalia [Ephemeromorpha]
    |--Pannota PC91
    |    |--Caenoidea MD03
    |    |    |--Neoephemeridae MD03
    |    |    |    |--Neoephemera MD03
    |    |    |    `--Potamanthellus rubiensis S02a
    |    |    `--Caenidae [Caenoptera] KS02
    |    |         |--Caenis rivulorum Eaton 1884 M86
    |    |         |--Wundacaenis dostini PH10
    |    |         |--Barnardara McCafferty & Provonsha 1995 GS15
    |    |         `--Tasmanocoenis PC91
    |    |              |--T. tillyardi PC91
    |    |              `--T. tonnoiri PC91
    |    `--+--Ephemerelloidea MD03
    |       `--Mesonetidae GE05
    |            |--Mesoneta antiqua S02b
    |            |--Clavineta Sinitshenkova 1991 S02b
    |            |    `--C. cantabilis Sinitshenkova 1991 S02b
    |            `--Furvoneta Sinitshenkova 1985 S02b
    |                 |--F. lata (Sinitshenkova 1976) S02b
    |                 |--F. lucida Sinitshenkova 2002 S02b
    |                 |--F. sobria Sinitshenkova 2002 S02b
    |                 `--F. undina (Sinitshenkova 1976) S02b
    `--+--Leptophlebiidae GE05
       |--+--Behningiidae [Behningioidea] GE05
       |  `--Torephemeridae GE05
       |       |--Archaeobehningia KS02
       |       `--Torephemera S02a
       `--Ephemeroidea [Pinnatitergaliae] GE05
            |  i. s.: Australiphemera [Australiphemeridae] KS02
            |         Microphemera KS02
            |         Pristiplocia KS02
            |         Palaeoanthidae KS02
            |--Euthyplociidae KS02
            |--Potamanthus M86 [Potamanthidae KS02]
            |    `--P. luteus (Linnaeus 1758) M86
            `--Fossoriae KS02
                 |--Ichthybotus PC66 [Ichthyobotidae KS02]
                 |    `--I. hudsoni PC66
                 |--Cryptoprosternata KS02
                 |    |--Palingeniidae [Palingeniinae] KS02
                 |    |    |--Pentagenia KS02
                 |    |    |--Plethogenesia papuana PC91, R70
                 |    |    `--Palingenia puella Pictet 1843 K03
                 |    `--Asthenopodinae PC91 [Polymitarcyidae KS02]
                 |         |--Asthenopus PC91
                 |         `--Povilla PC91
                 |              |--P. adusta G74
                 |              `--P. corporaali PC91
                 `--Ephemeridae [Ephemerinae] KS02
                      |--Litobrancha palaearctica KS02
                      |--Hexagenia limbata TW05, RS10
                      |--Eatonigenia D68
                      |--Afromera D68
                      |--Eatonica D68
                      `--Ephemera Linnaeus 1758 L58
                           |--E. bioculata Linnaeus 1758 L58
                           |--E. culiciformis Linnaeus 1758 L58
                           |--E. danica D56
                           |--E. horatia Linnaeus 1758 L58
                           |--E. mutica Linnaeus 1758 L58
                           |--E. romantzovi Kluge 1988 GS15
                           |--E. vespertina Linnaeus 1758 L58
                           `--E. vulgata Linnaeus 1758 L58

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[D68] Demoulin, G. 1968. Deuxième contribution à la connaissance des ephéméroptères de l'ambre oligocène de la Baltique. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift (N. F.) 15 (1–3): 233–276.

[GS15] Godunko, R. J., P. Sroka, T. Soldán & J. Bojková. 2015. The higher phylogeny of Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), with description of a new species of Calliarcys Eaton, 1881. Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 73 (2): 259–279.

[G74] Greenwood, P. H. 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Vistoria, East Africa: the biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Suppl. 6: 1–134.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K03] Kluge, N. J. 2003. About evolution and homology of genital appendages of insects. Trudy Russkogo Entomologicheskogo Obshestva [Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society] 74: 3–16.

[KS02] Kluge, N. Yu., & N. D. Sinitshenkova. 2002. Order Ephemerida Latreille, 1810. The true mayflies (=Ephemeroptera Hyatt et Arms, 1891 (s. l.); =Euephemeroptera Kluge, 2000. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 89–97. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M86] Marten, M. 1986. Drei für Deutschland neue und weitere, selten gefundene Eintagsfliegen aus der Fulda (Insecta, Ephemeroptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 169–173.

[MD03] Molineri, C., & E. Domínguez. 2003. Nymph and egg of Melanemerella brasiliana (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerelloidea: Melanemerellidae), with comments on its systematic position and the higher classification of Ephemerelloidea. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22 (2): 263–275.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[PC91] Peters, W. L., & I. C. Campbell. 1991. Ephemeroptera (mayflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 279–293. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Ephemeroptera (mayflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 224–240. Melbourne University Press.

[S02a] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002a. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02b] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002b. New late Mesozoic mayflies from the Shar-Teeg locality, Mongolia (Insecta, Ephemerida = Ephemeroptera). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (3): 43–48 (transl. Paleontological Journal 36 (3): 270–276).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

Last updated: 29 October 2017.

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