Anteholosticha

Views from life (A-D) and after protargol impregnation (E, F) of Anteholosticha pulchra, from the Laboratory of Protozoology, Ocean University of China. Scale bars = 100 μm.


Belongs within: Stichotrichina.

Anteholosticha is a genus of urostylid hypotrichs that have a continuous adoral zone, three enlarged frontal cirri and no caudal cirri; as the distinguishing characters of the genus are probably plesiomorphic for urostylids, its monophyly remains uncertain (Berger 2003).

Characters (from Berger 2003): Continuous adoral zone. Rearmost membranelles not wider than remaining membranelles of proximal portion. 3 enlarged frontal cirri. Buccal cirrus/cirri right of paroral. Frontoterminal cirri present. Midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only. Number of transverse cirri usually distinctly lower than number of midventral pairs. 1 left and 1 right marginal row. Anterior end of left marginal row ± straight, commences left of adoral zone. Caudal cirri lacking. Nuclear apparatus left of midline or scattered.

Anteholosticha Berger 2003 B03
    |--*A. monilata (Kahl 1928) [=Holosticha monilata] B03
    |--A. adami (Foissner 1982) [=Holosticha adami] B03
    |--A. arenicola (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha arenicola] B03
    |--A. australis (Blatterer & Foissner 1988) [=Holosticha australis] B03
    |--A. bergeri (Foissner 1987) [=Holosticha bergeri] B03
    |--A. brachysticha (Foissner, Agatha & Berger 2002) [=Holosticha brachysticha] B03
    |--A. brevis (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha brevis] B03
    |--A. camerounensis (Dragesco 1970) [=Holosticha camerounensis] B03
    |--A. distyla (Buitkamp 1977) [=Holosticha distyla] B03
    |--A. estuarii (Borror & Wicklow 1983) [=Holosticha estuarii] B03
    |--A. extensa (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha extensa] B03
    |--A. fasciola (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha fasciola] B03
    |--A. gracilis (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha gracilis] B03
    |--A. grisea (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha grisea] B03
    |--A. manca (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha manca] B03
    |--A. mancoidea (Hemberger 1985) [=Holosticha mancoidea] B03
    |--A. multistilata (Kahl 128) [=Holosticha multistilata] B03
    |--A. muscicola (Gellért 1956) [=Holosticha muscicola] B03
    |--A. muscorum (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha muscorum] B03
    |--A. oculata (Mereschkowsky 1877) [=Holosticha oculata] B03
    |--A. pulchra (Kahl 1932) [=Holosticha pulchra] B03
    |--A. randani (Grolière 1975) [=Holosticha randani] B03
    |--A. scutellum (Fohn 1866) [=Holosticha scutellum] B03
    |--A. sigmoidea (Foissner 1982) [=Holosticha sigmoidea] B03
    |--A. sphagni (Grolière 1975) [=Holosticha sphagni] B03
    |--A. thononensis (Dragesco 1966) [=Holosticha thononensis] B03
    |--A. violacea (Kahl 1928) [=Holosticha violacea] B03
    |--A. warreni (Song & Wilbert 1997) [=Holosticha warreni] B03
    `--A. xanthichroma (Wirnsberger & Foissner 1987) [=Holosticha xanthichroma] B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Berger, H. 2003. Redefinition of Holosticha Wrzesniowski, 1877 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha). European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 373-379.

Armophorea

Metopus contortus, from Proyecto Agua.


Belongs within: Intramacronucleata.

The Armophorea is a group of free-living and endosymbiotic ciliates supported as a clade by molecular analysis. Morphological synapomorphies of the Armophorea have not been identified, though all members of the clade possess hydrogenosomes (Lynn 2003).

Armophorea [Armophorina]
    |--Brachonella HH01
    `--+--Metopus HH01
       |    |--M. contortus WC02
       |    |--M. minor FS-K03
       |    |--M. palaeformis HH01
       |    `--M. striatus HH01
       `--+--Nyctotheroides HH01
          |    |--N. deslierresae HH01
          |    `--N. parvus HH01
          `--Nyctotherus HH01
               |--N. cordiformis WC02
               |--N. ovalis WC02
               `--N. velox WC02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FS-K03] Foissner, W., M. Strüder-Kypke, G. W. M. van der Staay, S. Y. Moon-van der Staay & J. H. P. Hackstein. 2003. Endemic ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae): A combined morphological, molecular, and ecological study. European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 365-372.

[HH01] Hackstein, J. H. P., A. H. A. M. van Hoek, J. A. M. Leunissen & M. Huynen. 2001. Anaerobic ciliates and their methanogenic endosymbionts. In Symbiosis: Mechanisms and Model Systems (J. Seckbach, ed.) pp. 451-464. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Doordrecht (The Netherlands).

Lynn, D. H. 2003. Morphology or molecules: How do we identify the major lineages of ciliates (Phylum Ciliophora)? European Journal of Protistology 39: 356-364.

[WC02] Wright, A.-D. G., & A. Colorni. 2002. Taxonomic re-assignment of Cryptocaryon irritans, a marine fish parasite. European Journal of Protistology 37: 375-378.

Rattus

Brown rat Rattus norvegicus, photographed by Warwick Sloss.


Belongs within: Muridae.

Rattus, the true rats, is a genus of medium-sized rodents native to southern and eastern Asia and Australasia. Two species, the black rat Rattus rattus and the brown rat Rattus norvegicus, have dispersed worldwide in association with humans.

<==Rattus
    |--R. adustus IT07
    |--R. annandalei (Bonhote 1903) K92
    |--R. argentiventer (Robinson & Kloss 1916) K92
    |--R. baluensis IT07
    |--R. bontanus IT07
    |--R. burrus IT07
    |--R. callitrichus BP87
    |--R. colletti IT07
    |--R. culionensis BP87
    |--R. elaphinus AC98
    |--R. enganus IT07
    |--R. everetti [incl. R. albigularis, R. gala, R. tyrannus] M82
    |--R. exulans (Peale 1848) K92 [=Mus exulans R64, Epimys exulans R14]
    |    |--R. e. exulans R14
    |    `--‘Mus’ e. maorium R14
    |--R. feliceus IT07
    |--R. foramineus IT07
    |--R. fuscipes S83
    |    |--R. f. fuscipes S83
    |    |--R. f. coracius S83
    |    |--R. f. greyii S83
    |    |--R. ‘greyi’ peccatus Troughton 1937 [=R. g. ravus Brazenor 1936 non Robison & Kloss 1916] R64
    |    `--R. ‘greyi’ pelori Finlayson 1960 R64
    |--R. giluwensis IT07
    |--R. hainaldi IT07
    |--R. hoffmanni (Matchie 1901) K92
    |--R. hoogerwerfi IT07
    |--R. jobiensis IT07
    |--R. koopmani IT07
    |--R. korinchi IT07
    |--R. lacus Tate 1951 R64
    |--R. latidens BP87
    |--R. leucopus R64
    |    |--R. l. leucopus R64
    |    |--R. l. cooktownensis Tate 1951 R64
    |    `--R. l. mcilwraithi Tate 1951 R64
    |--R. losea IT07
    |--R. lugens IT07
    |--R. lutreolus R64
    |    |--R. l. lutreolus R64
    |    |--R. l. cambricus Troughton 1937 R64
    |    `--R. l. imbil Troughton 1937 R64
    |--R. macleari BP87
    |--R. marmosurus IT07
    |--R. mindorensis IT07
    |--R. mollicomulus IT07
    |--R. montanus IT07
    |--R. mordax IT07
    |--R. morotaiensis IT07
    |--R. nativitatis BP87
    |--R. niobe (Thomas 1906) K92
    |--R. nitidus IT07
    |--R. norvegicus (Berkenhout 1769) [=Mus norvegicus] B75
    |--R. novaeguineae IT07
    |--R. omichlodes BP87
    |--R. osgoodi Musser & Newcomb 1985 FN97
    |--R. owiensis BP87
    |--R. palmarum IT07
    |--R. pelurus IT07
    |--R. praetor IT07
    |--R. pulliventer BP87
    |--R. ranjiniae IT07
    |--R. rattus (Linnaeus 1758) K92
    |    |--R. r. rattus B75
    |    |--R. r. alexandrinus (Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1803) B75
    |    `--R. r. frugivorus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz 1814) KK54
    |--R. remotus BP87
    |--R. rogersi BP87
    |--R. sanila IT07
    |--R. sikkimensis IT07
    |--R. simalurensis IT07
    |--R. sordidus IT07
    |--R. steini IT07
    |--R. stoicus IT07
    |--R. tanezumi IT07
    |--R. tawitawiensis IT07
    |--R. timorensis IT07
    |--R. tiomanicus (Miller 1900) K92
    |--R. tunneyi Thomas 1904 [incl. R. culmorum] K92
    |    |--R. t. tunneyi R64
    |    |--R. ‘culmorum’ apex Troughton 1939 R64
    |    `--R. t. dispar Brazenor 1936 R64
    |--R. turkestanicus IT07
    |--R. villosissimus IT07
    `--R. xanthurus IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1-29.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[FN97] Feiler, A., & T. Nadler. 1997. Recently discovered mammals in Vietnam—present results on taxonomy, zoogeography, status and on the protection of the animals (Mammalia). Zoologische Abhandlungen 49 (21): 331-335.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3-4): 121-135.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

[M82] Musser, G. G. 1982. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 110. Crunomys and the small-bodied shrew rats native to the Philippine Islands and Sulawesi (Celebes). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 174 (1): 1-95.

[R14] Revilliod, P. 1914. Les mammifères de la Nouvell-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 341-365, pl. 10. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[R64] Ride, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the Australian faunal list). Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 7 (Suppl.): 1-15.

[S83] Smith, A. M. A. 1983. The subspecific biochemical taxonomy of Antechinus minimus, A. swainsonii and Sminthopsis leucopus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Australian Journal of Zoology 32: 753-762.

Microtus

Field vole Microtus agrestis, photographed by Ernie Janes.


Belongs within: Arvicolidae.
Contains: Microtus (Pitymys), Microtus (Microtus) oeconomus, Microtus (Microtus) pennsylvanicus.

Microtus, the meadow voles, is a Holarctic genus of relatively unspecialised voles found living in grassy areas. Well-known species include the field vole Microtus agrestis, which is found across a large part of northern Eurasia. The long-tailed vole M. longicaudus is found in western North America, and lacks the hip glands found in other Microtus species.

<==Microtus (Microtus) [incl. Tyrrhenicola Major 1905] AC98
    |--M. (M.) agrestis (Linnaeus 1761) M87, KJ08
    |--M. (M.) longicaudus M87
    |    |--M. l. longicaudus A56
    |    |--M. ‘mordax’ macrurus H36
    |    `--M. l. mordax A56
    |--+--M. (M.) californicus (Peale 1848) M87, K92
    |  |    |--M. c. californicus BP87
    |  |    `--M. c. scirpensis BP87
    |  |--M. (Aulacomys) richardsoni [=Arvicola richardsoni] M87
    |  `--+--M. (Pedomys) ochrogaster (Wagner in Schreber 1842) M87, B75 [=Hypudaeus ochrogaster] B75
    |     |    |--M. o. ochrogaster A56
    |     |    |--M. o. haydeni A56
    |     |    |--M. o. ilanensis MH03
    |     |    |--M. o. ludovicianus BP87
    |     |    `--M. o. minor B75
    |     `--M. (Pitymys) M87
    `--+--M. (M.) oeconomus M87
       |--M. (M.) mexicanus M87, G69
       |    |--M. m. mexicanus G69
       |    `--M. m. fulviventer G69
       `--+--+--M. (Chilotus) oregoni [=M. (Microtus) oregoni, M. (Suranomys) oregoni] M87
          |  `--+--M. (M.) canicaudus M87 [=M. montanus canicaudus J68]
          |     `--M. (M.) montanus M87
          |          |--M. m. montanus A56
          |          `--M. m. fusus A56
          `--+--M. (M.) townsendii M87
             |    |--M. t. townsendii H36
             |    |--M. t. cummingi Hall 1936 H36
             |    `--M. t. tetramerus H36
             `--+--M. (M.) breweri M87
                `--M. (M.) pennsylvanicus M87

Microtus incertae sedis:
  M. abbreviatus [=M. miurus abbreviatus] RR75
  M. arvalis (Pallas 1778) KJ08
  M. cabrerae IT07
  M. chrotorrhinus IT07
  M. duodecimcostatus IT07
  M. evoronensis IT07
  M. fortis IT07
  M. gerbei IT07
  M. gregalis MHL03 [=Mus (Stenocranius) gregalis PM61]
  M. guatemalensis IT07
  M. guentheri IT07
  M. henseli (Forsyth Major 1882) [=Arvicola henseli, Tyrrhenicola henseli] AC98
  M. hyperboreus IT07
  M. irani IT07
  M. irene IT07
  M. juldaschi IT07
  M. kermanensis IT07
  M. kirgisorum IT07
  M. leucurus IT07
  M. limnophilus IT07
  M. lusitanicus IT07
  M. majori IT07
  M. maximowiczii IT07
  M. meadensis MH03
  M. melitensis (Bate 1920) [=Arvicola melitensis] AC98
  M. middendorffi IT07
  M. miurus IT07
  M. mongolicus IT07
  M. montebelli IT07
  M. mujanensis IT07
  M. multiplex IT07
  M. nasarovi IT07
  M. nesophilus BP87
  M. (M.) oaxacensis G69
  M. obscurus IT07
  M. paroperarius MH03
  M. pliocaenicus (Kormos 1933) MH03
  M. rossiaemeridionalis IT07
  M. sachalinensis IT07
  M. schelkovnikovi IT07
  M. sikimensis IT07
  M. socialis IT07
  M. subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps 1836) KJ08
  M. tatricus IT07
  M. thomasi IT07
  M. transcaspicus Satunin 1905 K92
  M. (Orthriomys) umbrosus G69
  M. xanthognathus IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1–29.

[A56] Anderson, S. 1956. Subspeciation in the meadow mouse, Microtus pennsylvanicus, in Wyoming, Colorado, and adjacent areas. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 9 (4): 85–104.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[H36] Hall, E. R. 1936. A new meadow mouse from Bowen Island, British Columbia. The Murrelet 17: 15–16.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[J68] Johnson, M. L. 1968. Application of blood protein electrophoretic studies to problems in mammalian taxonomy. Systematic Zoology 17 (1): 23–30.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[KJ08] Krämer, M. & M. Jentzsch. 2008. Kleinsäuger-Vorkommen aus dem Raum Zeitz—eine vergleichende Studie. Mauritiana 20 (2): 411–427.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1–247.

[M87] Modi, W. S. 1987. Phylogenetic analyses of chromosomal banding patterns among the Nearctic Arvicolidae (Mammalia: Rodentia). Systematic Zoology 36 (2): 109–136.

[PM61] Paradiso, J. L. & R. H. Manville. 1961. Taxonomic notes on the tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus) in Alaska. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 77–92.

[RR75] Rausch, R. L. & V. R. Rausch. 1975. Relationships of the red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rutilus (Pallas), in North America: karyotypes of the subspecies dawsoni and albiventer. Systematic Zoology 24 (2): 163–170.

Clethrionomys

Bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus, photographed by Plantsurfer.


Belongs within: Arvicolidae.

Clethrionomys, the red-backed voles, is a Holarctic genus of small rodents in which most species (as the vernacular name indicates) have reddish fur dorsally, with the remainder of the fur being grey.

<==Clethrionomys Tilesius 1850 RR75
    |--C. californicus IT07
    |--C. centralis IT07
    |--C. frater RR75
    |--C. gapperi (Vigors 1830) RR75
    |    |--C. g. gapperi RR75
    |    |--C. g. athabascae RR75
    |    |--C. g. galei RR75
    |    |--C. g. loringi (Bailey 1897) [=Evotomys gapperi loringi] B75
    |    `--C. g. nivarius [=C. occidentalis nivarius] RR75
    |--C. glareolus (Schreber 1780) FK55
    |--C. montanus Imaizumi 1972 I92
    |--C. occidentalis RR75
    |--C. rex Imaizumi 1971 I92
    |--C. rufocanus RR75
    |    |--C. r. rufocanus RR75
    |    `--C. r. bedfordiae RR75
    |--C. rutilus (Pallas 1779) [=Evotomys rutilus] RR75
    |    |--C. r. rutilus RR75
    |    |--C. r. albiventer Hall & Gilmore 1932 RR75
    |    |--C. r. dawsoni (Merriam 1888) [=Evotomys dawsoni; incl. E. alascensis Miller 1898] RR75
    |    `--C. r. mikado RR75
    |--C. sikotanensis IT07
    `--C. yesomontanus Kishida 1931 TYM08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[FK55] Felten, H., & C. König. 1955. Einige Säugetiere aus dem Zentralmassiv, Südfrankreich. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 267-269.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[RR75] Rausch, R. L. & V. R. Rausch. 1975. Relationships of the red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rutilus (Pallas), in North America: karyotypes of the subspecies dawsoni and albiventer. Systematic Zoology 24 (2): 163-170.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

Neotominae

Northern grasshopper mouse Onychomys leucogaster, photographed by Roger W. Barbour.


Belongs within: Cricetidae.
Contains: Neotoma, Reithrodontomys, Peromyscus.

The Neotominae are a North American group of mice, supported as a clade by molecular data (Reeder et al. 2006). Phylogenetic analysis has supported the division of the neotomines between four tribes, with the woodrats (Neotoma and related genera) possibly the most divergent from other neotomines. The Baiomyini, found in southern North and Central America, include the pygmy mice Baiomys and the singing mice Scotinomys. Both genera produce audible staccato 'songs', of longer duration in Scotinomys than Baiomys.

<==Neotominae
    |--Neotomini RC06
    |    |--Neotoma RC06
    |    |--Xenomys nelsoni RC06
    |    |--Hodomys alleni RC06 [=Neotoma (Hodomys) alleni G69]
    |    |    |--H. a. alleni G69
    |    |    `--H. a. vetula [=Neotoma (Hodomys) alleni vetula] G69
    |    `--Nelsonia RC06
    |         |--N. goldmani IT07
    |         `--N. neotomodon Merriam 1897 MB86
    `--+--Ochrotomys [Ochrotomyini] RC06
       |    `--O. nuttalli RC06
       |--Baiomyini RC06
       |    |--Scotinomys RC06
       |    |    |--S. teguina RC06
       |    |    |    |--S. t. teguina G69
       |    |    |    `--S. t. subnubilus G69
       |    |    `--S. xerampelinus IT07
       |    `--Baiomys RC06
       |         |--B. musculus G69
       |         |    |--B. m. musculus G69
       |         |    |--B. m. brunneus G69
       |         |    |--B. m. infernatis G69
       |         |    `--B. m. pallidus G69
       |         `--B. taylori RC06
       |              |--B. t. taylori MB86
       |              `--B. t. paulus (Allen 1903) MB86
       `--Peromyscini [Reithrodontomyini] RC06
            |  i. s.: Habromys RC06
            |           |--H. chinanteco IT07
            |           |--H. lepturus IT07
            |           |--H. lophurus IT07
            |           `--H. simulatus IT07
            |         Isthmomys RC06
            |           |--I. flavidus IT07
            |           `--I. pirrensis IT07
            |         Podomys floridanus RC06, IT07
            |--Reithrodontomys RC06
            `--+--+--Osgoodomys banderanus RC06
               |  `--Peromyscus RC06
               `--Onychomys RC06
                    |  i. s.: O. arenicola RC06
                    |--O. leucogaster (Wied-Neuwied 1841) MH03 [=Hypudaeus leucogaster B75]
                    |    |--O. l. leucogaster MH03
                    |    `--O. l. pedroensis MH03
                    `--+--O. hollisteri MH03
                       `--O. torridus MH03
                            |--O. t. torridus MB86
                            |--O. t. canus Merriam 1904 MB86
                            |--O. t. longicaudus CM07
                            `--O. t. surrufus MB86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[RC06] Reeder, S. A., D. S. Carroll, C. W. Edwards, C. W. Kilpatrick & R. D. Bradley. 2006. Neotomine-peromyscine rodent systematics based on combined analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 251–258.

Reithrodontomys

Fulvous harvest mouse Reithrodontomys fulvescens, photographed by Roger W. Barbour.


Belongs within: Neotominae.

Reithrodontomys, the harvest mice, is a genus of mice found in southern North America and northern South America. They are characterised by the presence of grooves on the anterior surface of the upper incisors (Goodwin 1969). The two subgenera within Reithrodontomys are distinguished by characters of the molars.

<==Reithrodontomys
    |--R. (Reithrodontomys) MH03
    |    |--R. (R.) fulvescens G69
    |    |    |--R. f. fulvescens AJ90
    |    |    |--R. f. amoenus G69
    |    |    |--R. f. canus Benson 1939 MB86
    |    |    |--R. f. chiapensis AJ90
    |    |    |--R. f. griseoflavus Merriam 1901 MB86
    |    |    |--R. f. helvolus AJ90
    |    |    |--R. f. infernatis G69
    |    |    |--R. f. meridionalis Anderson & Jones 1960 AJ90
    |    |    `--R. f. mustelinus G69
    |    |--R. (R.) megalotis (Baird 1858) MH03, MB86
    |    |    |--R. m. megalotis MB86
    |    |    |--R. m. alticolus G69
    |    |    |--R. m. dychei Allen 1895 B75
    |    |    `--R. m. zacatecae Merriam 1901 MB86
    |    |--R. (R.) moorei (Hibbard 1944) [=Cudahyomys moorei] MH03
    |    |--R. (R.) pratincola (Hibbard 1941) MH03
    |    `--R. (R.) sumichrasti G69
    |         |--R. s. sumichrasti AJ90
    |         |--R. s. australis AJ90
    |         |--R. s. dorsalis AJ90
    |         `--R. s. luteolus G69
    `--R. (Aprodon) G69
         |--R. (A.) mexicanus G69
         |    |--R. m. mexicanus AJ90
         |    |--R. m. cherriei AJ90
         |    |--R. m. howelli AJ90
         |    |--R. m. lucifrons AJ90
         |    |--R. m. orinus AJ90
         |    `--R. m. scansor G69
         `--R. (A.) microdon G69
              |--R. m. microdon G69
              `--R. m. albilabris G69

Reithrodontomys incertae sedis:
  R. brevirostris AJ90
  R. burti IT07
  R. chrysopsis IT07
  R. creper AJ90
  R. darienensis IT07
  R. gracilis AJ90
    |--R. g. gracilis AJ90
    |--R. g. anthonyi AJ90
    |--R. g. harrisi AJ90
    `--R. g. pacificus AJ90
  R. hirsutus IT07
  R. humulis IT07
  R. montanus B75
    |--R. m. montanus B75
    `--R. m. griseus Bailey 1905 B75
  R. paradoxus IT07
  R. raviventris IT07
  R. rexroadensis MH03
  R. rodriguezi IT07
  R. spectabilis IT07
  R. tenuirostris AJ90
  R. wetmorei MH03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AJ90] Anderson, S., & J. K. Jones. 1960. Records of harvest mice, Reithrodontomys, from Central America, with description of a new subspecies from Nicaragua. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 9 (19): 519–529.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

Sigmodon

Hispid cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus, photographed by Stephen Pollard.


Belongs within: Cricetidae.

Sigmodon, the cotton rats, is a genus of rats with long, coarse fur found in southern North America and northern South America. The hispid cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus is a known vector of hantavirus, which causes a dangerous flu-like illness.

Characters (from Goodwin 1969): Total length more than 250 mm; tail shorter than length of head and body, not conspicuously annulated. Pelage long and coarse. Skull rounded; rostrum long; upper incisors not grooved on anterior surface.

<==Sigmodon
    |--S. alleni IT07
    |--S. alstoni MH03
    |--S. alticola G69
    |--S. curtisi Gidley 1922 MH03
    |--S. fulviventer Allen 1889 MB86
    |--S. hispidus MB86
    |    |--S. h. hispidus MB86
    |    |--S. h. arizonae G69
    |    |--S. h. berlandieri Baird 1855 MB86
    |    |--S. h. ischyrus G69
    |    |--S. h. major G69
    |    |--S. h. obvelatus G69
    |    |--S. h. saturatus G69
    |    |--S. h. texianus (Audubon & Bachman 1853) [=Arvicola texiana] B75
    |    |--S. h. toltecus G69
    |    `--S. h. tonalensis G69
    |--S. hudspethensis MH03
    |--S. inopinatus IT07
    |--S. leucotis Bailey 1902 MB86
    |--S. lindsayi MH03
    |--S. macdougalli G69
    |--S. mascotensis Allen 1897 MB86 [=S. hispidus mascotensis G69]
    |--S. minor Gidley 1922 MH03
    |    |--S. m. minor MH03
    |    `--S. m. medius MH03
    |--S. ochrognathus IT07
    |--S. peruanus MH03
    `--S. planifrons [incl. S. macrodon, S. minor Goodwin 1955 non Gidley 1922, S. planifrons setzeri Goodwin 1959] G69

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

Urceolariidae

Trichodina on fish gill, from here.


Belongs within: Oligohymenophorea.

The Urceolariidae are a group of ciliates that are parasites or commensals on aquatic animals such as fish, molluscs or worms.

Characters (from here): Body cylindrical, often slightly tipped to one side; adoral spiral (buccal ciliature) turns ca. 400°, with wide radius; denticles of skeletal ring smoothly linked, ca. 20 in number; compact macronucleus; no cortical rings.

Urceolariidae [Mobilina]
    |--Leiotrocha BK77
    |--Cyclochaeta BK77
    |    |--C. astericola BK77
    |    |--C. asterisci (Gruber 1884) [=Trichodina asterisci, Cyclocyrrha asterisci] BK77
    |    `--C. ophiothricis (Fabre-Domergue 1888) [=Cyclocyrrha ophiothricis] BK77
    |--Urceolaria BK77
    |    |--U. ophiocomae BK77
    |    |--U. spinicola BK77
    |    `--U. synaptae [=Cyclochaeta synaptae, Trichodina synaptae] BK77
    `--Trichodina BK77
         |--T. davisi K-M02b
         |--T. domerguei K-M02a
         |    |--T. d. domerguei K-M02a
         |    `--T. d. saintjohnsi K-M02a
         |--T. elizabethae C02
         |--T. galyae K-M02a
         |--T. pediculus SCM99
         `--T. spheroidesi K-MC02c

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Pricklebacks. Family Stichaeidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 474-481. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02a] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002a. Lumpfishes. Family Cyclopteridae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 363-368. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02b] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002b. Temperate basses. Family Moronidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 374-389. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02c] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002c. Filefishes. Family Monacanthidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 592-598. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[SCM99] Shu, D., S. Conway Morris, X.-L. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Li & J. Han. 1999. A pipiscid-like fossil from the Lower Cambrian of south China. Nature 400: 746-749.

Heteromyidae

Salvin's spiny pocket mouse Liomys salvini, from Laguna de Apoyo.


Belongs within: Castorimorpha.
Contains: Perognathinae, Dipodomys.

The Heteromyidae are a group of rodents found in North America, including the pocket mice, kangaroo mice and kangaroo rats. They share with their close relatives, the Geomyidae (pocket gophers), the presence of externally opening, fur-liked cheek pouches, but they are epigean in habits in contrast to the fossorial geomyids (Hafner & Hafner 1983). Members of the Dipodomyinae, kangaroo mice and kangaroo rats, have developed a ricochetal mode of locomotion, whereas the Perognathinae, pocket mice, and Heteromyinae, spiny pocket mice, retain a plesiomorphic mouse-like appearance.

Heteromyidae [Saccomyidae]
    |  i. s.: Prodipodomys tiheni (Hibbard 1943) MH03
    |         Proheteromys MJ11
    |--+--Perognathinae HH83
    |  `--Dipodomyinae HH83
    |       |--Cupidinimus HH83
    |       |--Dipodomys HH83
    |       `--Microdipodops Merriam 1891 HH83
    |            |--M. megacephalus HH83
    |            |    |--M. m. megacephalus HD41
    |            |    |--M. m. dickeyi HD37
    |            |    |--M. m. leucotis Hall & Durrant 1941 HD41
    |            |    |--M. m. lucidus HD37
    |            |    `--M. m. paululus Hall & Durrant 1941 HD41
    |            `--M. pallidus HH83
    |                 |--M. p. pallidus HD37
    |                 `--M. p. albiventer Hall & Durrant 1937 HD37
    `--Heteromyinae HH83
         |--Heteromys Desmarest 1817 [incl. Saccomys Cuvier 1823] HH83
         |    |--H. anomalus (Thompson 1815) QV01
         |    |--H. australis Thomas 1901 QV01
         |    |--H. desmarestianus Gray 1868 (see below for synonymy) HH83
         |    |    |--H. d. desmarestianus G69
         |    |    `--H. d. griseus G69
         |    |--H. gaumeri Alen & Chapman 189 QV01
         |    |--H. goldmani Merriam 1902 QV01
         |    |--H. nelsoni Merriam 1902 QV01
         |    `--H. oresterus Harris 1932 QV01
         `--Liomys Merriam 1902 HH83
              |--L. adspersus IT07
              |--L. annectens G69
              |--L. irroratus MB86
              |    |--L. i. irroratus [incl. L. i. yautepecus Goodwin 1956] G69
              |    |--L. i. alleni (Coues 1881) MB86
              |    |--L. i. jaliscensis (Allen 1906) MB86
              |    |--L. i. minor G69
              |    `--L. i. torridus G69
              |--L. pictus HH83
              |    |--L. p. pictus MB86
              |    |--L. p. hispidus (Allen 1897) MB86
              |    |--L. p. isthmius G69
              |    |--L. p. phaeurus G69
              |    `--L. p. veraecrucis G69
              |--L. rostratus G69
              |--L. salvini IT07
              `--L. spectabilis IT07

Heteromys desmarestianus Gray 1868 [incl. H. lepturus Merriam 1902, H. longicaudatus Gray 1868, H. nigricaudatus Goodwin 1956, H. temporalis Goldman 1911] HH83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[HH83] Hafner, J. C., & M. S. Hafner. 1983. Evolutionary relationships of heteromyid rodents. In: Biology of Desert Rodents. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 7: 3–29.

[HD37] Hall, E. R., & S. D. Durrant. 1937. A new kangaroo mouse (Microdipodops) of Utah and Nevada. Journal of Mammalogy 18 (3): 357–359.

[HD41] Hall, E. R., & S. D. Durrant. 1941. Two new kangaroo-mice from Utah. The Murrelet 22 (1): 5–7.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[QV01] Quintero, M. M. T., M. Vargas, B. S. Hernández, P García & N. J. Otero. 2001. Ectoparasitic mites on Heteromys gaumeri in the south of Yucatan, Mexico. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 583–585. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Sciurini

Red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris, photographed by Tomi Tapio K.


Belongs within: Sciuridae.

The Sciurini is a group of tree squirrels found in Eurasia and the Americas, particularly in more temperate regions. They are united by the shape of the baculum, the penis bone, as well as by molecular data (Mercer & Roth 2003). The majority of species are placed in the genus Sciurus, which includes the familiar red squirrel S. vulgaris of Eurasia and the grey squirrel S. carolinensis of North America.

<==Sciurini
    |--+--Syntheosciurus MR03
    |  |    |--S. brochus MR03
    |  |    `--S. poasensis BP87
    |  `--Microsciurus [Microsciurini] MR03
    |       |--M. alfari MR03
    |       |--M. flaviventer MR03
    |       |--M. mimulus IT07
    |       `--M. santanderensis IT07
    `--+--Rheithrosciurus macrotis MR03
       `--Sciurus Linnaeus 1758 MR03, P04
            |--S. aberti MR03
            |    |--S. a. aberti BP87
            |    `--S. a. kaibabensis BP87
            |--S. aestuans IT07
            |--S. alleni IT07
            |--S. anomalus IT07
            |--S. arizonensis IT07
            |--S. atrodorsalis Gray 1842 [incl. S. hyperythrus Blyth 1855] P66
            |--S. aureogaster MB86
            |    |--S. a. aureogaster MB86
            |    `--S. a. socialis Wagner 1837 MB86
            |--S. carolinensis Gmelin 1788 K92
            |    |--S. c. carolinensis B75
            |    `--S. c. pennsylvanicus Ord in Guthrie 1815 [=S. pennsylvanica] B75
            |--S. chrysonotus P66
            |--S. colliaei IT07
            |--S. deppei G69
            |--S. erythrogaster P66
            |--S. flammifer IT07
            |--S. gilvigularis IT07
            |--S. granatensis MR03
            |--S. griseus Ord 1818 K92
            |--S. hippurus P66
            |--S. ignitus MR03
            |--S. igniventris IT07
            |--S. lis Temminck 1845 I92
            |--S. maltei Dahlmann 2001 P04
            |--S. nayaritensis Allen 1890 MB86
            |    |--S. n. nayaritensis KC05
            |    `--S. n. chiricahuae KC05
            |--S. niger Linnaeus 1758 K92
            |    |--S. n. niger KC05
            |    |--S. n. avicennia KC05
            |    |--S. n. cinereus BP87
            |    |--S. n. rufiventer Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1803 B75
            |    |--S. n. shermani BP87
            |    `--S. n. vulpinus BP87
            |--S. oculatus IT07
            |--S. phayrei Blyth 1855 P66
            |--S. piceus Peters 1866 P66
            |--S. poliopus G69
            |    |--S. p. poliopus G69
            |    `--S. p. hernandezi G69
            |--S. pucheranii IT07
            |--s. pyrrhinus IT07
            |--S. relictus T23
            |--S. richmondi IT07
            |--S. sanborni IT07
            |--S. socialis G69
            |    |--S. s. socialis G69
            |    |--S. s. cocos G69
            |    `--S. s. littoralis G69
            |--S. spadiceus IT07
            |--S. stramineus MR03
            |--S. syriacus T66
            |--S. variegatoides MR03
            |--S. vulgaris KC05
            |    |--S. v. vulgaris M76
            |    `--S. v. orientis Thomas 1906 M76
            |--S. warthae Sulimski 1964 P04
            `--S. yucatanensis IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[KC05] Koprowski, J. L., & M. C. Corse. 2005. Time budgets, activity periods, and behavior of Mexican fox squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 947–952.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[MR03] Mercer, J. M., & V. L. Roth. 2003. The effects of Cenozoic global change on squirrel phylogeny. Science 299: 1568–1572.

[P66] Peters, W. 1866. On some Mammalia collected by Capt. A. C. Beavan, C. M. Z. S., at Moulmein, Burmah. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 426–429.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84–93.

[T23] Troxell, E. L. 1923. Diplolophus, a new genus of rodents. American Journal of Science 5: 157–159.

Pteromyini

Indochinese flying squirrel Hylopetes phayrei, photographed by Varawut Varaguttanonda.


Belongs within: Sciuridae.

The Pteromyinae include the flying squirrels, characterised by the presence of a gliding patagium between the fore and hind legs. The majority of species are found in northern and eastern Eurasia, with the genus Glaucomys found in North America. The genus Petaurista includes the largest flying squirrels, and indeed some of the largest of all squirrels.

<==Pteromyini [Petauristinae, Pteromyinae]
    |  i. s.: Biswamoyopterus biswasi MR03, IT07
    |         Pliopetaurista Kretzoi 1962 P04
    |           |--P. dehneli (Sulimski 1964) [=Pliosciuropterus dehneli] P04
    |           |--P. moldaviensis Baranova & Konkova 1974 P04
    |           |--P. pliocaenica (Depéret 1897) P04
    |           `--P. schaubi (Sulimski 1964) P04
    |--+--Petaurista MR03
    |  |    |--P. alborufus MR03
    |  |    |--P. elegans IT07
    |  |    |--P. leucogenys Temminck 1827 M76
    |  |    |--P. magnificus IT07
    |  |    |--P. nobilis IT07
    |  |    |--P. petaurista IT07
    |  |    |--P. philippensis IT07
    |  |    `--P. xanthotis IT07
    |  `--+--Pteromys MR03
    |     |    |--P. momonga Temminck 1845 M76
    |     |    `--P. volans MR03
    |     `--+--+--Eupetaurus cinereus MR03
    |        |  `--Aeromys MR03
    |        |       |--A. tephromelas MR03
    |        |       `--A. thomasi IT07
    |        `--+--Pteromyscus pulverulentus MR03
    |           `--+--Belomys pearsonii MR03
    |              `--+--Aeretes melanopterus MR03
    |                 `--Trogopterus xanthipes MR03
    `--+--Eoglaucomys fimbriatus MR03
       `--+--Glaucomys MR03
          |    |--G. sabrinus IT07
          |    |    |--G. s. sabrinus BP87
          |    |    |--G. s. bangsi M61
          |    |    |--G. s. coloratus BP87
          |    |    |--G. s. fuscus BP87
          |    |    |--G. s. lucifugus M61
          |    |    `--G. s. murinauralis Musser 1961 M61
          |    `--G. volans (Linnaeus 1758) [=Mus volans] B75
          |         |--G. v. volans G69
          |         |--G. v. chontali Goodwin 1961 G69
          |         |--G. v. herreranus G69
          |         |--G. v. oaxacensis Goodwin 1961 G69
          |         `--G. v. querceti B49
          `--+--Iomys MR03
             |    |--I. horsfieldi MR03
             |    `--I. sipora IT07
             `--+--Petinomys MR03
                |    |--P. bartelsi BP87
                |    |--P. crinitus IT07
                |    |--P. fuscocapillus IT07
                |    |--P. genibarbis IT07
                |    |--P. hageni IT07
                |    |--P. lugens IT07
                |    |--P. sagitta IT07
                |    |--P. setosus MR03
                |    `--P. vordermanni IT07
                `--+--Petaurillus MR03
                   |    |--P. emiliae IT07
                   |    |--P. hosei IT07
                   |    `--P. kinlochii MR03
                   `--Hylopetes MR03
                        |--H. alboniger IT07
                        |--H. baberi IT07
                        |--H. bartelsi IT07
                        |--H. fimbriatus IT07
                        |--H. lepidus IT07
                        |--H. mindanensis BP87
                        |--H. nigripes IT07
                        |--H. phayrei MR03
                        |--H. sipora IT07
                        |--H. spadiceus IT07
                        `--H. winstoni IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267–320.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[MR03] Mercer, J. M., & V. L. Roth. 2003. The effects of Cenozoic global change on squirrel phylogeny. Science 299: 1568–1572.

[M61] Musser, G. G. 1961. A new subspecies of flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) from southwestern Utah. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 119–126.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

Spermophilus

Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, photographed by Mnmazur.


Belongs within: Marmotini.

Spermophilus, the ground squirrels, has been recognised as a genus of about forty species found in northern Eurasia and North America. However, the genus in this sense may be paraphyletic to other genera in the Marmotini, and recent authors have restricted it to a group of western Eurasian species.

<==Spermophilus Cuvier 1825 P04
    |--S. (Spermophilus) richardsonii HGP74, RH75
    |--S. (Callospermophilus) lateralis HGP74
    |--S. (Ictidomys) HGP74
    |    |--S. (I.) mexicanus (Erxleben 1777) HGP74, MB86
    |    |    |--S. m. mexicanus MB86
    |    |    `--S. m. parvidens Mearns 1896 MB86
    |    `--S. (I.) tridecemlineatus (Mitchill 1821) HGP74, B75 [=Sciurus tridecemlineatus B75]
    `--S. (Otospermophilus) variegatus (Erxleben 1777) GB68, MB86
         |--S. v. variegatus MB86
         |--S. v. couchii Baird 1855 MB86
         `--S. v. rupestris (Allen 1903) MB86

Spermophilus incertae sedis:
  S. adocetus IT07
  S. alashanicus IT07
  S. annulatus IT07
  S. armatus RH75
  S. atricapillus IT07
  S. beecheyi IT07
  S. beldingi RH75
    |--S. b. beldingi RH75
    |--S. b. creber RH75
    `--S. b. oregonus RH75
  S. brunneus RH75
  S. canus IT07
  S. citellus IT07
  S. columbianus RH75
    |--S. c. columbianus RH75
    `--S. c. ruficaudus RH75
  S. cragini MH03
  S. dauricus IT07
  S. elegans RH75
    |--S. e. elegans [=S. richardsonii elegans] RH75
    |--S. e. aureus [=S. richardsonii aureus] RH75
    `--S. e. nevadensis [=S. richardsonii nevadensis] RH75
  S. erythrogenys IT07
  S. franklinii (Sabine 1822) [=Arctomys franklinii] B75
  S. fulvus IT07
  S. madrensis IT07
  S. major IT07
  S. meadensis (Hibbard 1941) [=Citellus meadensis] MH03
  S. mohavensis IT07
  S. mollis IT07
  S. musicus IT07
  S. nogaici (Topachevski 1957) [=Urocitellus nogaici] P04
  S. parryii RH75
    |--S. p. parryii RH75
    |--S. p. janensis RH75
    |--S. p. kennicottii RH75
    `--S. p. leucostictus RH75
  S. perotensis IT07
  S. pygmaeus IT07
  S. relictus IT07
  S. saturatus IT07
  S. spilosoma Bennett 1833 MB86
    |--S. s. spilosoma MB86
    `--S. s. pallescens (Howell 1928) MB86
  S. suslicus IT07
  S. tereticaudus IT07
  S. townsendii IT07
  S. undulatus RH75
    |--S. u. undulatus RH75
    |--S. u. eversmanni RH75
    `--S. u. stramineus RH75
  S. washingtoni IT07
  S. xanthoprymnus IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[GB68] Gerber, J. D. & E. C. Birney. 1968. Immunological comparisons of four subgenera of ground squirrels. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 413-416.

[HGP74] Hight, M. E., M. Goodman & W. Prychodko. 1974. Immunological studies of the Sciuridae. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 12-25.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985-1001.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1-88.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403-491.

[RH75] Robinson, J. W. & R. S. Hoffmann. 1975. Geographical and interspecific cranial variation in big-eared ground squirrels (Spermophilus): a multivariate study. Systematic Zoology 24 (1): 79-88.