Red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris, photographed by Tomi Tapio K.

Belongs within: Sciuridae.

The Sciurini is a group of tree squirrels found in Eurasia and the Americas, particularly in more temperate regions. They are united by the shape of the baculum, the penis bone, as well as by molecular data (Mercer & Roth 2003). The majority of species are placed in the genus Sciurus, which includes the familiar red squirrel S. vulgaris of Eurasia and the grey squirrel S. carolinensis of North America.

    |--+--Syntheosciurus MR03
    |  |    |--S. brochus MR03
    |  |    `--S. poasensis BP87
    |  `--Microsciurus [Microsciurini] MR03
    |       |--M. alfari MR03
    |       |--M. flaviventer MR03
    |       |--M. mimulus IT07
    |       `--M. santanderensis IT07
    `--+--Rheithrosciurus macrotis MR03
       `--Sciurus Linnaeus 1758 MR03, P04
            |--S. aberti MR03
            |    |--S. a. aberti BP87
            |    `--S. a. kaibabensis BP87
            |--S. aestuans IT07
            |--S. alleni IT07
            |--S. anomalus IT07
            |--S. arizonensis IT07
            |--S. atrodorsalis Gray 1842 [incl. S. hyperythrus Blyth 1855] P66
            |--S. aureogaster MB86
            |    |--S. a. aureogaster MB86
            |    `--S. a. socialis Wagner 1837 MB86
            |--S. carolinensis Gmelin 1788 K92
            |    |--S. c. carolinensis B75
            |    `--S. c. pennsylvanicus Ord in Guthrie 1815 [=S. pennsylvanica] B75
            |--S. chrysonotus P66
            |--S. colliaei IT07
            |--S. deppei G69
            |--S. erythrogaster P66
            |--S. flammifer IT07
            |--S. gilvigularis IT07
            |--S. granatensis MR03
            |--S. griseus Ord 1818 K92
            |--S. hippurus P66
            |--S. ignitus MR03
            |--S. igniventris IT07
            |--S. lis Temminck 1845 I92
            |--S. maltei Dahlmann 2001 P04
            |--S. nayaritensis Allen 1890 MB86
            |    |--S. n. nayaritensis KC05
            |    `--S. n. chiricahuae KC05
            |--S. niger Linnaeus 1758 K92
            |    |--S. n. niger KC05
            |    |--S. n. avicennia KC05
            |    |--S. n. cinereus BP87
            |    |--S. n. rufiventer Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1803 B75
            |    |--S. n. shermani BP87
            |    `--S. n. vulpinus BP87
            |--S. oculatus IT07
            |--S. phayrei Blyth 1855 P66
            |--S. piceus Peters 1866 P66
            |--S. poliopus G69
            |    |--S. p. poliopus G69
            |    `--S. p. hernandezi G69
            |--S. pucheranii IT07
            |--s. pyrrhinus IT07
            |--S. relictus T23
            |--S. richmondi IT07
            |--S. sanborni IT07
            |--S. socialis G69
            |    |--S. s. socialis G69
            |    |--S. s. cocos G69
            |    `--S. s. littoralis G69
            |--S. spadiceus IT07
            |--S. stramineus MR03
            |--S. syriacus T66
            |--S. variegatoides MR03
            |--S. vulgaris KC05
            |    |--S. v. vulgaris M76
            |    `--S. v. orientis Thomas 1906 M76
            |--S. warthae Sulimski 1964 P04
            `--S. yucatanensis IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[KC05] Koprowski, J. L., & M. C. Corse. 2005. Time budgets, activity periods, and behavior of Mexican fox squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 947–952.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[MR03] Mercer, J. M., & V. L. Roth. 2003. The effects of Cenozoic global change on squirrel phylogeny. Science 299: 1568–1572.

[P66] Peters, W. 1866. On some Mammalia collected by Capt. A. C. Beavan, C. M. Z. S., at Moulmein, Burmah. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 426–429.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84–93.

[T23] Troxell, E. L. 1923. Diplolophus, a new genus of rodents. American Journal of Science 5: 157–159.


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