Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, photographed by Mnmazur.

Belongs within: Marmotini.

Spermophilus, the ground squirrels, has been recognised as a genus of about forty species found in northern Eurasia and North America. However, the genus in this sense may be paraphyletic to other genera in the Marmotini, and recent authors have restricted it to a group of western Eurasian species.

<==Spermophilus Cuvier 1825 P04
    |--S. (Spermophilus) richardsonii HGP74, RH75
    |--S. (Callospermophilus) lateralis HGP74
    |--S. (Ictidomys) HGP74
    |    |--S. (I.) mexicanus (Erxleben 1777) HGP74, MB86
    |    |    |--S. m. mexicanus MB86
    |    |    `--S. m. parvidens Mearns 1896 MB86
    |    `--S. (I.) tridecemlineatus (Mitchill 1821) HGP74, B75 [=Sciurus tridecemlineatus B75]
    `--S. (Otospermophilus) variegatus (Erxleben 1777) GB68, MB86
         |--S. v. variegatus MB86
         |--S. v. couchii Baird 1855 MB86
         `--S. v. rupestris (Allen 1903) MB86

Spermophilus incertae sedis:
  S. adocetus IT07
  S. alashanicus IT07
  S. annulatus IT07
  S. armatus RH75
  S. atricapillus IT07
  S. beecheyi IT07
  S. beldingi RH75
    |--S. b. beldingi RH75
    |--S. b. creber RH75
    `--S. b. oregonus RH75
  S. brunneus RH75
  S. canus IT07
  S. citellus IT07
  S. columbianus RH75
    |--S. c. columbianus RH75
    `--S. c. ruficaudus RH75
  S. cragini MH03
  S. dauricus IT07
  S. elegans RH75
    |--S. e. elegans [=S. richardsonii elegans] RH75
    |--S. e. aureus [=S. richardsonii aureus] RH75
    `--S. e. nevadensis [=S. richardsonii nevadensis] RH75
  S. erythrogenys IT07
  S. franklinii (Sabine 1822) [=Arctomys franklinii] B75
  S. fulvus IT07
  S. madrensis IT07
  S. major IT07
  S. meadensis (Hibbard 1941) [=Citellus meadensis] MH03
  S. mohavensis IT07
  S. mollis IT07
  S. musicus IT07
  S. nogaici (Topachevski 1957) [=Urocitellus nogaici] P04
  S. parryii RH75
    |--S. p. parryii RH75
    |--S. p. janensis RH75
    |--S. p. kennicottii RH75
    `--S. p. leucostictus RH75
  S. perotensis IT07
  S. pygmaeus IT07
  S. relictus IT07
  S. saturatus IT07
  S. spilosoma Bennett 1833 MB86
    |--S. s. spilosoma MB86
    `--S. s. pallescens (Howell 1928) MB86
  S. suslicus IT07
  S. tereticaudus IT07
  S. townsendii IT07
  S. undulatus RH75
    |--S. u. undulatus RH75
    |--S. u. eversmanni RH75
    `--S. u. stramineus RH75
  S. washingtoni IT07
  S. xanthoprymnus IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[GB68] Gerber, J. D. & E. C. Birney. 1968. Immunological comparisons of four subgenera of ground squirrels. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 413-416.

[HGP74] Hight, M. E., M. Goodman & W. Prychodko. 1974. Immunological studies of the Sciuridae. Systematic Zoology 23 (1): 12-25.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985-1001.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1-88.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403-491.

[RH75] Robinson, J. W. & R. S. Hoffmann. 1975. Geographical and interspecific cranial variation in big-eared ground squirrels (Spermophilus): a multivariate study. Systematic Zoology 24 (1): 79-88.

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