Eukaryota

Postgaardi mariagerensis, copyright J. van den Hoff.


Belongs within: Life.
Contains: Chitinozoa, Ischyrospongia, Tuberitinidae, Heterolobosea, Jakobida, Corticata, Metamonada, Amorphea, Euglenida, Kinetoplastea.

The Eukaryota is the group of organisms in which the chromosomes are contained within a nuclear membrane that is separate from the external cell membrane. In the majority of cases, cells of eukaryotes are much larger than those of non-eukaryotes. Movement of cells is commonly via the beating of one or more cilia (alternatively referred to as 'flagella' when relatively long compared to the remainder of the cell) but numerous lineages have lost cilia for at least part of the life cycle.

Basal relationships within the eukaryotes have been subject to much argument in the past and even now are far from settled; the arrangement given below represents but one proposal and will almost certainly be altered in the future. Cavalier-Smith (2010) argued for a basal position within the eukaryotes of the Euglenozoa, which are characterised by cilia (usually two, more rarely one or more than two) arising from an apical or subapical ciliary pocket, and commonly have a tubular feeding apparatus associated with the cilia. Most euglenozoans also have heteromorphic supporting rods (paraxonemes) within the cilia, though these are absent in the trophic phase of the Diplonemea. In this phase, Diplonemea have short cilia and an apical feeding apparatus with 'pseudovanes' (Adl et al. 2012).

Characters (from Cavalier-Smith 2002): Chromosomes and ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope, which is topologically within, and separate from, plasma membrane; endoplasmic reticulum growing by direct insertion of individual lipid molecules synthesised by proteins embedded in same membrane; plasma membrane growing by fusion of vesicles budded from endomembranes. Complex endoskeleton (cytoskeleton) present of microtubules and actin filaments using attached molecular motors to mediate chromosome segregation and cell division, respectively; cells ancestrally phagotrophic. Cell motile organs (when present) cilia.

<==Eukaryota (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Heterolobosea C-SCL15
    |  `--+--Tsukubamonas Yabuki et al. 2011 AS12 [Tsukubamonadea C-SCL15]
    |     |    `--T. globosa AS12
    |     `--+--Jakobida C-SCL15
    |        `--Neozoa (see below for synonymy) C-S10
    |             |--Corticata C-S10
    |             `--Scotokaryotes C-SCL15
    |                  |--Metamonada C-SCL16
    |                  `--+--Amorphea C-SCL15
    |                     `--Malawimonas O’Kelly & Nerad 1999 C-SCL16, AS12 (see below for synonymy)
    |                          |--M. californiana C-SCL15
    |                          `--M. jakobiformis C-SCL15
    `--Euglenozoa [Plicostoma] C-SCL15
         |  i. s.: Heteromita Dujardin 1841 AS12
         |--Euglenida C-SCL15
         `--+--Saccostoma C-S03b
            |    |--Kinetoplastea C-SCL15
            |    `--Symbiontida [Postgaardea, Postgaardida] AS12
            |         |--Postgaardi mariagerensis C-S10, S03
            |         |--Calkinsia aureus AS12
            |         `--Bihospites AS12
            `--Diplonemea [Diplonemia, Diplonemida] AS12
                 |--Diplonema C-SCL15
                 |    |--D. ambulator Larsen & Patterson 1990 AS12
                 |    `--D. papillatum C-S04
                 `--Rhynchopus Skuja 1948 RF07
                      |--*R. amitus RF07
                      |--R. coscinodiscivorus RF07
                      `--R. euleeides Roy, Faktorová et al. 2007 RF07

Eukaryota incertae sedis:
  Melanocyrillium C-S10
  Trachyhystrichosphaera C-S02
  Chitinozoa WBN02
  Haemohormidium terraenovae K-M02
  Pseudodevescovina uniflagellata WR03
  Corollolithion kennedyi GT02
  Helenea chiastia GT02
  Lithraphidites Deflandre 1963 H75
    |--*L. carniolensis Deflandre 1963 H75
    |--L. acutus GT02
    |--L. alatus K79
    |--L. bollii K79
    `--L. quadratus K79
  Rhagodiscus asper GT02
  Marthasterites Deflandre 1959 FT93
    |--M. contortus P79
    |--M. furcatus VH02
    `--M. tribrachiatus P79
  Eiffelithus VH02
    |--E. eximius VH02
    `--E. turriseiffelli VH02
  Lithastrinus septenarius VH02
  Eprolithus VH02
    |--E. moratus VH02
    `--E. octopetalus VH02
  Micula VH02
    |--M. decussata VH02
    `--M. mura K79
  Quadrum gartneri VH02
  Calculites anfractus VH02
  Reinhardites antophorus VH02
  Lucianorhabdus Deflandre 1959 H75
    `--*L. cayeuxi Deflandre 1959 H75
  Lithocodium aggregatum HS02
  Cinetidomyxa chattoni T72
  Lagenidiopsis Golemansky 1974 G86
    |--L. ancora Sudzuki 1979 G86
    |--L. elegans (Gruber 1884) G86
    `--L. valkanovi Golemansky 1974 G86
  Pseudolagenidiopsis Sudzuki 1979 G86
    `--P. golemanskyi Sudzuki 1979 G86
  ‘Voluta’ Chardez 1972 non Linnaeus 1758 G86
    `--V. hemispiralis Chardez 1972 G86
  Bicorium Maslov 1956 BB05
    `--*B. kusbassense Maslov 1956 BB05
  Archaeolithothamnium BB05
    |--A. irinae Maslov 1956 BB05
    `--A. saipanense [=Sporolithon saipanense] A04
  Wengania Zhang 1989 X04
    |--*W. globosa Zhang 1989 X04
    |--W. exquisita Zhang, Yin et al. 1998 X04
    `--W. minuta Xiao 2004 X04
  Paratetraphycus giganteus Zhang 1985 X04
  Meghystricosphaeridium Zhang, Yin et al. 1998 X04
    |--*M. chadianensis (Chen & Liu 1986) (see below for synonymy) X04
    |--M. densum (Kolosova 1991) Zhang, Yin et al. 1998 X04
    |--M. gracilentum (Yin in Yin & Liu 1988) Zhang, Yin et al. 1998 X04
    |--M. magnificum Zhang, Yin et al. 1998 X04
    |--M. perfectum (Kolosova 1991) Zhang, Yin et al. 1998 X04
    `--M. reticulatum X04
  Dicrospinasphaera Yuan & Hofmann 1998 X04
    `--*D. zhangii Yuan & Hofmann 1998 X04
  Apodostoides basileus Zhang et al. 1998 X04
  Tianzhushania spinosa Yin & Li 1978 X04
  Ericiasphaera X04
    |--E. magna (Zhang 1984) X04
    |--E. rigida X04
    `--E. sparsa X04
  Asterocapsoides sinensis X04
  Cerionopora ordinata [incl. Bacatisphaera baokangensis] X04
  Briareus borealis Knoll 1992 X04
  Castaneasphaera speciosa X04
  Cymatiosphaeroides yinii X04
  Distosphaera speciosa Zhang et al. 1998 X04
  Echinosphaeridium maximum X04
  Eotylotopalla X04
    |--E. dactylos X04
    `--E. delicata X04
  Filisphaeridium X04
  Goniosphaeridium X04
    |--G. acuminatum X04
    |--G. conoideum X04
    `--G. cratum X04
  Leiosphaeridia Eisenack 1958 (see below for synonymy) G79
    `--L. tenuissima X04
  Lophosphaeridium X04
  Mastosphaera changyangensis X04
  Micrhystridium X04
  Pustulisphaera membranacea X04
  Sinosphaera rupina X04
  Vulcanisphaera phacelosa X04
  Gremiphyca corymbiata Zhang et al. 1998 X04
  Paramecia incognata Zhang & Yuan 1992 X04
  Thallophycoides phloeatus Zhang & Yuan 1992 X04
  Monas SX97
    |--M. minima SX97
    |--M. socianilis SX97
    `--M. stigmatica PHK96
  Radiosus Zhuravleva 1964 T84, G79
    |--*R. limpidus Zhuravleva 1964 G79
    `--R. radialis T84
  Granomarginata T84
    |--G. dhalli T84
    |--G. primitiva T84
    `--G. simlaensis T84
  Griffonia simplicifolia WN00
  Mizzia VH01
    |--M. velebitana Schubert 1908 VH01
    `--M. yabei VH01
  Pseudoepimastopora likana Kochansky-Devidé & Herak 1960 VH01
  Arabicodium [incl. Siamporidium Endo 1969] VH01
  Ortonella VH01
    |--O. latifibrosa Endo in Endo & Kanuma 1954 VH01
    `--O. morikawai Endo 1958 VH01
  Nanopora VH01
    |--‘Anthracoporella’ fragilissima Maslov 1939 VH01
    `--‘Anthracoporella’ kasachiensis Maslov 1939 VH01
  Roquesselsia Termier et al. 1977 VH01
    `--‘Anthracoporella’ insolita Ivanova 1988 VH01
  Oligoporella Pia 1912 VH01
  Clavaphysoporella Endo 1958 VH01
  Clavaporella [incl. Eoclypeina Poncet 1987 non Emberger in Vachard 1985] VH01
    `--C. reinae Racz 1966 [incl. *Eoclypeina crassa Poncet 1987] VH01
  Neoanchicodium Endo in Endo & Kanuma 1954 VH01
  Nostocites Maslov 1929 VH01
    `--*N. vesiculosa Maslov 1929 VH01
  Ischyrospongia VH01
  Sphairionia Tien 1989 [incl. Pseudosphairionia Pronina 1996] VH01
    |--*S. sikuoides Tien 1989 (see below for synonymy) VH01
    `--S. gallinae Vachard, Hauser et al. 2001 VH01
  Tuberitinidae VH01
  Marpolia spissa CM98
  Coccobotrys D03
    |--*C. verrucariae D03
    `--C. mucosus D03
  Hyalostachybotrys D03
    |--H. bisbyi D03
    `--H. sacchari D03
  Streptobotrys D03
    |--S. arisaematis D03
    |--S. caulophyllii D03
    `--S. streptothrix D03
  Polysphaerinella bulla CM01
  Luffisphaera [Holosea] C-S03a
  Kamaena E03
    |--K. delicata E03
    `--K. tatarstanica E03
  Izhella nubiformis E03
  Bosea Srivastava 1975 FT93
  Evittia Brito 1967 FT93
  Anthosphaeridium Cookson & Eisenack 1968 FT93
  Archaeodinium Shu 1979 FT93
  Artemisiocysta Benedek 1972 FT93
  Ascostomocystis Drugg & Loeblich 1967 FT93
    `--A. hydria Drugg & Loeblich 1967 E77
  Beringiella Bujak 1984 FT93
  Caddasphaera Fenton et al. 1980 FT93
  Catillopsis Drugg 1970 FT93
  Ceratocystidiopsis Deflandre 1937 FT93
  Chonesphaera Klumpp 1953 FT93
  Cirrifera Cookson & Eisenack 1960 FT93
  Collumosphaera Jain & Dutta in Dutta & Jain 1980 FT93
  Conicoidium Jiabo 1978 FT93
  Cupritia Courtinat & Gaillard 1980 FT93
  ‘Cyclodictyon’ Cookson & Eisenack 1958 non Mitt. 1864 FT93
  Cyclopsiella Drugg & Loeblich 1967 FT93
  Cystidiopsis Nagy 1965 FT93
  Deflandridium Nagy 1969 FT93
  Dictyosphaeridium Wetzel 1952 FT93
  Diplofusa Cookson & Eisenack 1960 FT93
  Wallodinium Loeblich & Loeblich 1968 [=Diplotesta Cookson & Eisenack 1960 (preoc.)] FT93
  Domasiella Eisenack 1969 FT93
  Enigmadinium Wrenn & Hart 1988 FT93
  Epicephalopyxis Deflandre 1935 [Acritarcha] FT93
    `--*E. adhaerens Deflandre 1935 E77
  Halodinium Bujak 1984 FT93
  Halophoridia Cookson & Eisenack 1962 FT93
  Korojonia Cookson & Eisenack 1958 FT93
  Lophodictyotidium Pocock 1972 FT93
  Mathurosphaera Varma & Dangwal 1964 FT93
  Membranosphaera Samoilovich in Samoilovich & Mtchedlishvili 1961 FT93
  Mirificysta Yu 1982 FT93
  Nummus Morgan 1975 FT93
  Ollula Góczán 1962 FT93
  Palaeohystrichosphaeridium Eiserhardt 1986 FT93
  Palaeostomocystis Deflandre 1937 FT93
  Palhistiodinia Deflandre 1939 FT93
  Pronoctiluca Fabre-Domergue 1889 (see below for synonymy) FT93
    |--*P. pelagica Fabre-Domerague 1889 SW70
    `--P. acuta SW70
  Piperodinium Mudie in Scott et al. 1984 FT93
  Platycystidia Cookson & Eisenack 1960 FT93
  Polyasterias Meunier 1910 non Perrier 1894 (ICZN) FT93
  Prismatocystis Habib 1969 FT93
  Pseudofromea Burger 1980 FT93
  Pterocystidiopsis Deflandre 1937 FT93
  Quadrina Bujak 1980 FT93
  Rhombodella Cookson & Eisenack 1962 FT93
  Schizocystia Cookson & Eisenack 1962 FT93
  Sicyoideum He 1980 FT93
  Spicadinium Batten & Lister 1988 FT93
  Spinuliferites Huang 1981 FT93
  Stylodiniopsis Eisenack 1954 FT93
    `--*S. maculatum Eisenack 1954 H75
  Tetragonidium Pascher 1914 FT93
  Tubulifera Schumacker-Lambry 1978 FT93
  Sinosabellidites Zheng 1980 [incl. Huainanella Wang 1982] SWZ86
    `--*S. huainanensis Zheng 1980 [incl. Huainanella cylindrica Wang 1982] SWZ86
  Vindhyania Mathur 1983 SWZ86
  Phimopollenites pannosus (Dettmann & Playford 1968) Dettmann 1974 RC02
  Sarjeantia Horowitz 1975 FT93
  Prothyris lanceolata JP97
  Ammoclathrinidae [Ammoconidae] T72
    |--Ammosolenia Haeckel 1889 T72
    |    `--A. rhizammina Haeckel 1889 T72
    |--Ammoclathrina Laubenfels 1948 [=Ammoconia Haeckel 1889 (preoc.)] T72
    |    |--*A. aulopegma (Haeckel 1889) [=Ammoconia aulopegma] T72
    |    `--A. sagenella (Haeckel 1889) [=Ammoconia sagenella] T72
    `--Ammolynthus Haeckel 1889 T72
         |--*A. haliphysema Haeckel 1889 T72
         `--A. prototypus Haeckel 1889 T72
  Cysticercus cellulosae B32
  Morania Walcott 1919 H85
    |--*M. globosa Walcott 1919 H85
    `--M. antiqua Fenton & Fenton 1939 H85
  Longfengshania Du 1982 H85
    `--*L. stipitata Du 1982 H85
  Daltaenia Hofmann 1985 H85
    `--*D. mackenziensis Hofmann 1985 H85
  Globochaete Lombard 1945 MS99
    `--G. alpina F71
  Ovummuridae MSV00
    |--Ovummurus Minoura & Chitoku 1979 MSV00
    |    `--*O. duoportius Minoura & Chitoku 1979 [=O. duoportio] MSV00
    |--Minourella Munnecke, Servais & Vachard 2000 MSV00
    |    `--*M. gotlandica Munnecke, Servais & Vachard 2000 MSV00
    |--Arouxina Munnecke, Servais & Vachard 2000 MSV00
    |    `--*A. pluricellata Munnecke, Servais & Vachard 2000 MSV00
    `--Samtlebenella Munnecke, Servais & Vachard 2000 MSV00
         `--*S. circumcamerata Munnecke, Servais & Vachard 2000 MSV00
  Calcisphaeridae MSV00
    |--Polyderma Derville 1950 MSV00
    |--Asterosphaerella Villain 1975 MSV00
    |--Eovolvox Kazmierczak 1975 MSV00
    `--Calcisphaera Williamson 1880 MSV00 [incl. Granulosphaera Derville 1931 H75]
         |--*C. robusta Williamson 1881 H75
         `--C. leavis Williamson 1881 M98 [=*Granulosphaera laevis H75]
  Cyathomonas truncata SX97
  Pleuromonas jaculans SX97
  Thylacomonas compress SX97
  Nebula carinatalla SX97
  Rosenia Waagen & Wentzel 1886 BR05
  Pseudodimorpha Mikrjukov 2000 M00
    `--*P. marina (Fenchel et al. 1995) [=Tetradimorpha marina] M00
  Quadricilia rotunda (Skuja 1948) M00
  Moncharmontia apeninica LSM-CG00
  Dinomonas Kent 1880–1881 C-SC04
    `--*D. tuberculata Kent 1880–1881 C-SC04
  Disphaeria Cookson & Eisenack 1960 FT93
    `--D. macropyla Cookson & Eisenack 1960 RC02
  Nanogyra nana YZ83
  Thurmanella pentaptycta YZ83
  Paleonuculus makitoensis YZ83
  Yatsengia hangchowensis DX84
  Triflagellum S03
    |--T. diaphanum Ruinen 1938 S03
    `--T. hardyi Ruinen 1938 S03
  Eothrix alpina F71
  Sphenolithus VC88
    |--S. abies Deflandre in Deflandre & Fert 1954 VC88
    |--S. belemnos P79
    |--S. ciperoensis P79
    |--S. distentus P79
    |--S. heteromorphus P79
    |--S. predistentus P79
    `--S. pseudoradians P79
  ‘Guttulina’ Cienkowski 1873 (see below for synonymy) LT64a
  Heteroderma Fitzinger 1843 LT64a
  Astacoderma Harley 1861 Has62
  Bransonella Harlton 1933 Has62
  Dermatolithis Ehrenberg 1854 Has62
  Fortscottella Gunnell 1931 Has62
  Icthyodus Harris & Hollingsworth 1933 Has62
  Lepodus Branson & Mehl 1933 Has62
  Lepognathodus Mehl in Fay 1959 Has62
  Multidentodus Harlton 1933 Has62
  Prionognathodus Fay 1959 [=Prionognathus Pander 1856 non Ferté-Sénèctere 1851] Has62
  Scolopodella Stauffer & Plummer 1932 Has62
  Stephanodella Matern 1933 Has62
  Halysium Swidzinski 1934 [incl. Arthrodendron Ulrich 1904 (n. n.) nec Seward 1898 nec Scott 1900] H75
    |--*H. problematicum Swidzinski 1934 H75
    |--‘Hormosira’ moniliformis Heer 1877 H75
    `--‘Halimeda’ saportae Fuchs 1894 H75
  Hensonella Elliott 1960 H75
    `--*H. cylindrica Elliott 1960 H75
  Margaretia Walcott 1931 H75
    `--*M. dorus Walcott 1931 H75
  Nannoconus Kamptner 1931 H75
    |--*N. steinmanni Kamptner 1931 H75
    `--N. colomi (de Lapparent 1931) [=Lagena colomi] Han62
  Porocystis Cragin 1893 H75
    `--P. globularis (Giebel 1853) Han62 (see below for synonymy)
  Taitia Crookall 1931 H75
    `--*T. catena Crookall 1931 H75
  Brooksella Walcott 1896 [incl. Laotira Walcott 1896] H75
  Distichoplax Pia 1934 H75
  Tubulites Bein 1932 (ICBN) non Gesner 1758 (ICZN) H75
  Ampelitocystis Deunff 1957 H75
    `--*A. feuguerollensis Deunff 1957 H75
  Ampulites Flower 1961 H75
    `--*A. vasiformis Flower 1961 H75
  Ancestrulites Flower 1961 H75
    `--*A. tubiformis Flower 1961 H75
  Ancientia Ross 1967 H75
    `--*A. ohioensis Ross 1967 H75
  Bicornifera Lindenberg 1965 H75
    `--*B. alpina Lindenberg 1965 H75
  Birrimarnoldia Hovasse & Couture 1961 [=Arnoldia Hovasse 1956 nec Mayer-Eymar 1887 nec Stolley 1937] H75
    `--*B. antiqua (Hovasse 1956) [=*Arnoldia antiqua] H75
  Cayeuxipora Graindor 1957 H75
  Cayeuxistylus Graindor 1957 H75
  Cheilosporites Wähner 1903 [Cheilosporitidae] H75
    `--*C. tirolensis Wähner 1903 H75
  Cheneyella Flower 1961 H75
    `--*C. clausa Flower 1961 H75
  Chisibyllites Deflandre 1961 H75
    `--*C. kerguelenensis Deflandre 1961 H75
  Chotecella Obrhel 1964 H75
    `--*C. leiotheca Obrhel 1964 H75
  Tasmanites Newton 1875 H75
  Claviradix Ferguson 1961 H75
    `--*C. ashi Ferguson 1961 H75
  Palaeocoryne Duncan & Jenkins 1869 H75
  Coptocampylodon Elliott 1963 H75
    `--*C. lineolatus Elliott 1963 H75
  Cucurbita Jablonsky 1973 H75
    `--*C. infundibuliforme Jablonsky 1973 H75
  Cystosphaera Flower 1961 H75
    `--*C. rotunda Flower 1961 H75
  Dicasignetella Keij 1969 H75
    `--*D. eocaenica Keij 1969 H75
  Draffania Cummings 1957 H75
    `--*D. biloba Cummings 1957 H75
  Eliasites Flower 1961 H75
    `--*E. pedunculatus Flower 1961 H75
  Eotaeniopsis Eisenack 1955 H75
    `--*E. articulata Eisenack 1955 H75
  Fentonites Flower 1961 H75
    `--*F. irregularis Flower 1961 H75
  Gochtia Eisenack 1968 H75
    `--*G. rete Eisenack 1968 H75
  Goldringella Flower 1961 H75
    `--*G. plana Flower 1961 H75
  Harjesia Flower 1961 H75
    `--*H. anomala Flower 1961 H75
  Hikorocodium Endo 1951 [=Hicorocodium (l. c.)] H75
    `--*H. elegantae Endo 1951 H75
  Hydrocytium silicula Matthew 1890 H75
  Induropilarius Deflandre & Ters in Ters & Deflandre 1966 H75
    `--*I. aenigmaticus Deflandre & Ters in Ters & Deflandre 1966 H75
  Ivesella Flower 1961 H75
    `--*I. adnata Flower 1961 H75
  Kockelites Alberti 1968 H75
    `--*K. longus Alberti 1968 H75
  Kruschevia Flower 1961 H75
    `--*K. verruca Flower 1961 H75
  Lacrymorphus Elliott 1958 H75
    `--*L. perplexus Elliott 1958 H75
  Ladinella Ott in Kraus & Ott 1968 H75
    `--*L. porata Ott in Kraus & Ott 1968 H75
  Ladinosphaera Oberhauser 1940 H75
    `--*L. geometrica Oberhauser 1940 H75
  Lamellitubus Ott in Kraus & Ott 1968 H75
    `--*L. cauticus Ott in Kraus & Ott 1968 H75
  Linotolypa Eisenack 1962 H75
    `--*L. arcuata Eisenack 1962 H75
  Lombardia Brönnimann 1955 H75
    |--*L. arachnoidea Brönnimann 1955 H75
    |--L. angulata H75
    `--L. perplexa H75
  Microrhabdulinus Deflandre 1963 H75
    `--*M. ambiguus Deflandre 1963 H75
  Microrhabduloidus Deflandre 1963 H75
    `--*M. rugosus (Bouché 1962) [=Microrhabdulus rugosus] H75
  Microrhabdulus Deflandre 1959 H75
    `--*M. decoratus Deflandre 1959 H75
  Microtubus Flügel 1964 H75
    `--*M. communis Flügle 1964 H75
  Mooreopsis Flower 1961 H75
    `--*M. rotundus Flower 1961 H75
  Moundia Flower 1961 H75
    `--*M. fibrosa Flower 1961 H75
  Niccumites Flower 1961 H75
    `--*N. oculatus Flower 1961 H75
  Palambages Wetzel 1961 H75
    `--*P. morulosa Wetzel 1961 H75
  Palamphimorphium Deflandre & Ters in Ters & Deflandre 1966 H75
    `--*P. speciosum Deflandre & Ters in Ters & Deflandre 1966 H75
  Paleocryptidium Deflandre 1955 H75
    `--*P. cayeuxi Deflandre 1955 H75
  Papinochium Deflandre & Ters in Ters & Deflandre 1966 H75
    `--*P. dubium Deflandre & Ters in Ters & Deflandre 1966 H75
  Pedicellaria Flower 1961 H75
    `--*P. bifurcata Flower 1961 H75
  Pictonicopila Deflandre & Ters 1966 H75
    `--*P. polymorpha Deflandre & Ters 1966 H75
  Plutoneptunites Deflandre 1961 H75
    `--*P. antarcticus Deflandre 1961 H75
  Polysiphonidia Eisenack 1971 H75
    `--*P. enigmatica Eisenack 1971 H75
  Pyritella Love 1958 H75
    `--*P. polygonalis Love 1958 H75
  Pyritosphaera Love 1958 H75
    `--*P. barbaria Love 1958 H75
  Skylonia Thomas 1961 H75
    `--*S. mirabilis Thomas 1961 H75
  Slocomia Flower 1961 H75
    `--*S. quadrata Flower 1961 H75
  Spinophenia Szczechuria 1969 H75
    `--*S. multituba Szczechuria 1969 H75
  Tetrabrachiophora Eisenack 1954 H75
    `--*T. natans Eisenack 1954 H75
  Tholella Flower 1961 H75
    `--*T. idiotica Flower 1961 H75
  Triangulina Quilty 1970 H75
    `--*T. aequilateralis Quilty 1970 H75
  Urnulella Szczechura 1969 H75
    `--*U. costata Szczechura 1969 H75
  Vallenia Raunsgaard Pedersen 1967 H75, G79
    `--*V. erlingi Raunsgaard Pedersen 1967 G79
  Voorthuyseniella Szczechura 1969 H75
    `--*V. lageniformae Szczechura 1969 H75
  Warthinites Flower 1961 H75
    `--*W. adhaerens Flower 1961 H75
  Xenokalymma Eisenack 1968 H75
    `--*X. trematophora Eisenack 1968 H75
  Argonevis Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*A. nuda Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Limolepis Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*L. interruptus Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Erinea Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*E. triassica Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Venerella Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Nemotapis Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Cornuvacites Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Irinella Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*I. canalifera Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Bogschites Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*B. carnicus Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Havinellites Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*H. spinosus Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Strechoritina Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*S. radiata Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Uvanogelia Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*U. incurvata Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Radimonis Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*R. foliacea Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Placerotapis Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*P. subplanus Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Fanerocoelia Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
    `--*F. pennata Kozur & Mostler 1972 H75
  Bavlinella Shepeleva 1962 [incl. Sphaerocongregus Moorman 1974] G79
    `--*Sphaerocongregus’ variabilis Moorman 1974 G79
  Beltanelloides Sokolov 1965 G79
    `--*B. sorichevae Sokolov 1965 G79
  Armillifera parva EL11
  Beltanelliformis Menner 1968 EL11, G79
    `--*B. brunsae Menner 1963 G79
  Bronicella podolica EL11
  Corumbella werneri EL11
  Funisia dorothea EL11
  Hadrynichorde catalenensis EL11
  Hadryniscala avalonica EL11
  Hiemalora stellaris EL11
  Inaria karli EL11
  Lomosovis malus EL11
  Mawsonites Glaessner & Wade 1966 EL11, G79
    `--*M. spriggi Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
  Nemiana simplex EL11
  Ovascutum concentricum EL11
  Palaeopascichnus delicates EL11
  Paracharina dengyingensis EL11
  Parviscopa bonavistensis EL11
  Primocandelabrum hemialoranum EL11
  Somatohelix sinuosus EL11
  Yangtziramulus zhangi EL11
  Yelovichnus gracilis EL11
  Anabylia improvisa EL11
  Archangelia valdaica EL11
  Barmia lobatus EL11
  Blackbrookia oaksi EL11
  Bonata septata EL11
  Elasenia EL11
    |--E. aseevae EL11
    `--E. uralica EL11
  Evmiaksia aksionovi EL11
  Garania petali EL11
  Gehlingia dibrachida EL11
  Glaessneria imperfecta EL11
  Irridinitus multiradiatus EL11
  Ivesheadia lobata EL11
  Jampolium wyrzhykoowskii EL11
  Kaisalia EL11
    |--K. levis EL11
    `--K. mensae EL11
  Kubisia glabra EL11
  Nadalina yukonensis EL11
  Namiana bakeevi EL11
  Nimbia EL11
    |--N. dniesteri EL11
    |--N. occlusa EL11
    `--N. paula EL11
  Paliella patelliformis EL11
  Platyopholinia pholata EL11
  Ramellina pennata EL11
  Sekwia excentrica EL11
  Shepshedia palmata EL11
  Stauinidia crucicula EL11
  Vendella EL11
    |--V. haelenicae EL11
    `--V. sokolovi EL11
  Veprina undosa EL11
  Vladimissa missarzhevskii EL11
  Annulina Terquem 1862 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*A. metensis Terquem 1862 LT64b
  Cylidria Desvoidy 1830 [=Cylindria (l. c.) non de Gregorio 1930] LT64b
  Balanulina Rzehak 1888 (n. d.) LT64b
    `--*B. kittlii Rzehak 1888 (n. d.) LT64b
  Millarella Carter 1888 LT64b
    `--*M. cantabrigiensis Carter 1888 LT64b
  Spongina de Gregorio 1930 LT64b
    `--*S. permica (de Gregorio 1930) [=Globigerina (*Spongina) permica] LT64b
  Terquemina Galloway 1933 LT64b
    `--*T. devonica Galloway 1933 LT64b
  Callimastix cyclopsis HAJ00
  Adelphamoeba galeacystis LB90
  Anthophysa vegetans H04
  Poteriodendron petiolatum H04
  Uvella glaucoma H04
  Rigifilida AS12
    |--Micronuclearia AS12
    `--Rigifila AS12
  Actinocoma AS12
  Adinomonas AS12
  Aletium AS12
  Amphimonas AS12
  Amylophagus AS12
  Aphelidiopsis AS12
  Asterocaelum AS12
  Asthmatos AS12
  Aurospora AS12
  Bertarellia AS12
  Bertramia AS12
  Bjornbergiella AS12
  Bodopsis AS12
  Boekelovia AS12
  Branchipocola AS12
  Camptoptyche AS12
  Chalarodora AS12
  Cibdelia AS12
  Cichkovia AS12
  Cladomonas AS12
  Codonoeca AS12
  Coelosporidium AS12
  Copromonas AS12
  Cyanomastix AS12
  Cyclomonas AS12
  Cytamoeba AS12
  Dallingeria AS12
  Dictyomyxa AS12
  Dimastigamoeba AS12
  Dinemula AS12
  Diplocalium AS12
  Diplomita AS12
  Diplophysalis AS12
  Diploselmis AS12
  Dobellia AS12
  Dobellina AS12
  Ducelleria AS12
  Ectobiella AS12
  Elaeorhanis AS12
  Embryocola AS12
  Endemosarca AS12
  Endobiella AS12
  Endomonas AS12
  Endospora AS12
  Enteromyxa AS12
  Eperythrocytozoon AS12
  Errera AS12
  Fromentella AS12
  Gymnococcus AS12
  Gymnophrydium AS12
  Haematotractidium AS12
  Hartmannina AS12
  Heliobodo AS12
  Heliomonas AS12
  Hermisenella AS12
  Hillea AS12
  Hyalodaktylethra AS12
  Immnoplasma AS12
  Isoselmis AS12
  Joyeuxella AS12
  Kamera AS12
  Kiitoksia AS12
  Liegeosia AS12
  Lithocolla AS12
  Lymphocytozoon AS12
  Lymphosporidium AS12
  Macappella AS12
  Magosphaera AS12
  Malpighiella AS12
  Martineziella AS12
  Megamoebomyxa AS12
  Meringosphaera AS12
  Mononema AS12
  Myrmicisporidium AS12
  Naupliicola AS12
  Nephrodinium AS12
  Neurosporidium AS12
  Ovicola AS12
  Palisporomonas AS12
  Paradinemula AS12
  Paramastix AS12
  Paraplasma AS12
  Parastasiella AS12
  Peliainia AS12
  Peltomonas AS12
  Petasaria AS12
  Phanerobia AS12
  Phloxamoeba AS12
  Phyllomonas AS12
  Physcosporidium AS12
  Piridium AS12
  Pleuromastix AS12
  Protenterospora AS12
  Rhynchodinium AS12
  Schewiakoffia AS12
  Sergentella AS12
  Serpentoplasma AS12
  Sphaerasuctans AS12
  Spiriopsis AS12
  Spirogregarian AS12
  Stephanomonas AS12
  Strobilomonas AS12
  Thaulirens AS12
  Topsentella AS12
  Toshiba AS12
  Toxocystis AS12
  Vavraia culicis L91
  Concentricisporites bianulatus (Neves 1961) DV06
  Ovalipollis pseudoalatus DV06
  Pityosporites neomundanus DV06
  Kyrtomisporis ervii Van der Eem 1983 DV06

Eukaryota [Actinopodea, Acyttaria, Alternatia, Anisomonadea, Anisomonadia, Archaeprotista, Archimycetes, Autotractea, Axostylaria, Biciliata, Bikonta, Cabozoa, Cnidosporidia, Cyathobodonea, Cyclia, Discicristata, Discoba, Eosarcodina, Eozoa, Euglenobiontes, Eurymonada, Excavata, Extrumonada, Fungilli, Gymnica, Gymnomycota, Gymnomyxa, Heliozoa, Heliozoia, Heterozooflagellata, Histionia, Histionida, Hydraulea, Isomita, Jakobidea, Kinetomonada, Kinetomonadea, Loukozoa, Mastigogenina, Mastigophora, Metakaryota, Monocyphia, Mycetozoia, Myxothallophyta, Neomonada, Neosarcodina, Neosporidia, Panstomata, Pantostomata, Phycomycetes, Phytomastigophorea, Plasmodroma, Plasmodromata, Polystomata, Proterozoa, Protista, Protoctista, Protomycota, Protoneozoa, Protophyta, Protoplasta, Protozoa, Pseudoplasmodida, Rhizoflagellata, Rhizomastigina, Rhizopoda, Rhizopodea, Rhizopodes, Rhizopodia, Sarcodea, Sarcodina, Sarcomastigophora, Sarcomastigota, Sarcomonadea, Sarkodina, Sorophora, Sorophorae, Sorophoreae, Sorophorina, Symplectomeres, Tetramitacea, Thecomonadia, Varicristia, Vermes, Zoomastigina, Zoomastigophorea, Zoophyta]

‘Guttulina’ Cienkowski 1873 non d’Orbigny 1839 [Guttulinacea, Guttulinaceae, Guttulinacei, Guttulineae, Guttulinidae, Guttuliniidae, Guttulininae] LT64a

Leiosphaeridia Eisenack 1958 [incl. Botholigotriletum Timofeev 1958, Kildinella Shepeleva & Timofeev 1963, Leiopsophosphaera Naumova 1960, Leiosphaeridium Timofeev 1959, Lopholigotriletum Timofeev 1959, Menneria Lopukhin 1971, Ocridoligotriletum Timofeev 1958, Protoleiosphaeridium Timofeev 1959, Protosphaeridium Timofeev 1966, Stenozonoligotriletum Timofeev 1958, Trachyoligotriletum Timofeev 1958, Turuchania Rudavskaya 1964, Wendiella Timofeev 1960 (n. n.); Sphaeromorphitae] G79

Malawimonas O’Kelly & Nerad 1999 C-SCL16, AS12 [Malawimonadea, Malawimonadida, Malawimonadidae, Neolouka]

*Meghystrichosphaeridium chadianensis (Chen & Liu 1986) [incl. M. acrotrichum Yin in Yin & Liu 1988, Tianzhushania tuberifera] X04

Neozoa [Adjungentiidae, Athalamia, Cryptodifflugiacea, Homogenea, Protrudentiidae, Reticulolobosa, Testacea, Testareticulosina] C-S10

Porocystis globularis (Giebel 1853) Han62 [=Siphonia globularis H75; incl. Araucarites wardi Hill 1893 H75, *Porocystis pruniformis Cragin 1893 H75]

Pronoctiluca Fabre-Domergue 1889 [incl. Pelagorhynchus Pavillard 1917, Protodinifer Kofoid & Swezy 1921] FT93

*Sphairionia sikuoides Tien 1989 [incl. Soroorina ghezelbashi Baghbani 1993 (n. n.), Sp. (*Pseudosphairionia) tienii Pronina 1996] VH01

*Type species of generic name indicated

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