Phalacrotophora epeirae, copyright John R. Maxwell.

Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Contains: Melaloncha.

The Phoridae, scuttle flies, are a group of small hump-backed flies of diverse habits. Winged species are readily distinguished by the characteristic venation of their wings, with four veins running obliquely across the main body of the wing.

Characters (from McAlpine 1990): Small humpbacked flies, 1-4 mm long. Ptilinal fissure and lunule absent. Wing rounded at apex, with radiating venation: branches of R strongly thickened and crowded into anterior base, four other weak and peculiarly aligned veins in remainder of wing blade; C ending near middle of anterior margin.

<==Phoridae [Phoroidea]
    |--Prioriphora GE05 [Prioriphorinae BLM02]
    |    `--P. casei GE05
    `--Metopininae B04
         |--Rhynchophoromyia B04
         |--Physoptera B04
         |--Metopina GE05
         |    |--M. goeleti GE05
         |    `--M. pachycondylae A71
         |--+--Melittophora salti B04
         |  `--Melaloncha B04
         `--Phalacrotophora B04
              |--P. berolinensis B04
              |--P. beuki B04
              |--P. epeirae B04
              |--P. fasciata B04
              |--P. halictorum B04
              |--P. quadripunctata B04
              `--P. rufiventris B04

Phoridae incertae sedis:
  Megaselia B04
    |--M. abdita WT11
    |--M. alternata A-B91
    |--M. elongata [incl. M. cuspidata] A71
    |--M. fasciata A71
    |--M. halterata CT01
    |--M. (Aphiochaeta) impariseta M83
    `--M. scalaris GE05
  Aneurina Z02
  Spiniphora Z02
  Apocephalus B04
  Aphiura treviceps M83
  Borophaga incrassata [=Hypocera incrassata] A71
  Pseudacteon formicarum A71
  Aenigmatias [incl. Platyphora] A71
  Phora Latreille 1796 BR05
    `--P. occidentata M90
  Thaumatoxena GE05
  Euliphora grimaldii GE05
  Acontistoptera GE05
  Puliciphora GE05
  Lecanocerus compressiceps M90
  Dohrniphora T90
  Cryptopteromyia jeanssoni S94

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1-42.

[CT01] Clift, A., & M. A. Terras. 2001. A quantitative study of phoresy in Microdispus lambi (Acari: Microdispidae) in eastern Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 394-398. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1-155.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253-1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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